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Brian Campbell, James Yaggie, and Daniel Cipriani

Context:

Functional knee braces (FKB) are used prophylactically and in rehabilitation to aide in the functional stability of the knee.

Objective:

To determine if alterations in select lower extremity moments persist throughout a one hour period in healthy individuals.

Design:

2X5 repeated measures design.

Setting:

Biomechanics Laboratory.

Subjects:

Twenty subjects (14 male and 6 female, mean age 26.5±7 yrs; height 172.4±13 cm; weight 78.6±9 kg), separated into braced (B) and no brace (NB) groups.

Intervention:

A one-hour exercise program divided into three 20 minute increments.

Main Outcome Measures:

Synchronized three-dimensional kinematic and kinetic data were collected at 20-minute increments to assess the effect of the FKB on select lower extremity moments and vertical ground reaction forces.

Results:

Increase in hip moment and a decrease in knee moment were noted immediately after brace application and appeared to persist throughout a one hour bout of exercise.

Conclusions:

The FKB and the exercise intervention caused decreases in knee joint moments and increases in hip joint moments.

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Adam E. Jagodinsky, Christopher Wilburn, Nick Moore, John W. Fox, and Wendi H. Weimar

Owing to the prevalence of acute ankle sprains and high rate of reoccurrence for such injuries, preventative measures such as ankle bracing are often implemented. Ankle bracing is an effective method of preventing ankle injury, particularly in athletes who have previously sustained an ankle injury

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Kimmery Migel and Erik Wikstrom

, alternative modalities should be considered to help improve gait biomechanics until effective rehabilitation programs can be developed. Taping and bracing are commonly used to supplement impairment-based rehabilitation programs for individuals with CAI and have been shown to reduce the risk of recurrent ankle

Open access

Thomas M. Newman, Giampietro L. Vairo, and William E. Buckley

functional performance tasks (see the “Appendices” section) while wearing ankle braces. In general, bracing does not appear to cause statistically significant impairments to performance on most functional tasks; however, decrements were noted to yield increases in agility run time and decreases in vertical

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Kristi Edgar, Aimee Appel, Nicholas Clay, Adam Engelsgjerd, Lauren Hill, Eric Leeseberg, Allison Lyle, and Erika Nelson-Wong

with SIJD. 12 , 21 SIJ compression through external measures, either manual application or a device, reduces motion at the joint and alleviates painful symptoms. 18 SIJ bracing is an intervention utilized for individuals with SIJD that can be self-administered by patients. There are 3 hypothesized

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Miranda Rudnick and Brian Wallace

to three times more likely in the absence of ankle supports ( Dizon & Reyes, 2010 ; McGuine, Brooks, & Hetzel, 2011 ; Rosenbaum et al., 2005 ; Sitler et al., 1994 ). Ankle taping and bracing cost between US$28.00 and US$40.00 per one ankle over the duration of one season ( Mickel et al., 2006

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Mitchell L. Cordova, Yosuke Takahashi, Gregory M. Kress, Jody B. Brucker, and Alfred E. Finch

Objective:

To investigate the effects of external ankle support (EAS) on lower extremity joint mechanics and vertical ground-reaction forces (VGRF) during drop landings.

Design:

A 1 × 3 repeated-measures, crossover design.

Setting:

Biomechanics research laboratory.

Patients:

13 male recreationally active basketball players (age 22.3 ± 2.2 y, height 177.5 ± 7.5 cm, mass 72.2 ± 11.4 kg) free from lower extremity pathology for the 12 mo before the study.

Interventions:

Subjects performed a 1-legged drop landing from a standardized height under 3 different ankle-support conditions.

Main Outcome Measures:

Hip, knee, and ankle angular displacement along with specific temporal (TGRFz1, TGRFz2; s) and spatial (GRFz1, GRFz2; body-weight units [BW]) characteristics of the VGRF vector were measured during a drop landing.

Results:

The tape condition (1.08 ± 0.09 BW) demonstrated less GRFz1 than the control (1.28 ± 0.16 BW) and semirigid conditions (1.28 ± 0.21 BW; P < .0001), and GRFz2 was unaffected. For TGRFz1, no-support displayed slower time (0.017 ± 0.004 s) than the semirigid (0.014 ± 0.001 s) and tape conditions (0.014 ± 0.002 s; P < .05). For TGRFz2, no-support displayed slower time (0.054 ±.006 s) than the semirigid (0.050 ± 0.006 s) and tape conditions (0.045 ± 0.004 s; P < .05). Semirigid bracing was slower than the tape condition, as well (P < .05). Ankle-joint displacement was less in the tape (34.6° ± 7.7°) and semirigid (36.8° ± 9.3°) conditions than in no-support (45.7° ± 7.3°; P < .05). Knee-joint displacement was larger in the no-support (45.1° ± 9.0°) than in the semirigid (42.6° ± 6.8°; P < .05) condition. Tape support (43.8° ± 8.7°) did not differ from the semirigid condition (P > .05). Hip angular displacement was not affected by EAS (F 2,24 = 1.47, P = .25).

Conclusions:

EAS reduces ankle- and knee-joint displacement, which appear to influence the spatial and temporal characteristics of GRFz1 during drop landings.

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Mastour S. Alshaharani, Everett B. Lohman, Khaled Bahjri, Travis Harp, Mansoor Alameri, Hatem Jaber, and Noha S. Daher

general, there is a lack of consensus regarding a gold-standard treatment for individuals with PFPS. Physical therapy interventions range from eccentric knee exercises, 8 taping, 9 bracing, 10 and foot orthoses 11 despite the fact that several of these interventions being shown to be ineffective or

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Heather D. Hartsell and Sandi J. Spaulding

Because the effects of bracing on dynamic torque production are unknown, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of flexible and semirigid braces on isokinetic torque production at varying velocities produced by the invertor and evertor muscles for the chronically unstable ankle. Ten healthy and 14 chronically unstable ankles were tested, with a repeated-measures design including joint motion (inversion, eversion), muscle contraction type (concentric, eccentric), brace condition (unbraced, flexible, semirigid), and velocity (60, 120, 180, 240°/s). Multiple ANOVAs with repeated-measures and Bonferroni-adjusted comparisons were performed. Results showed that the chronically unstable ankle was significantly weaker than the healthy ankle, regardless of muscle contraction type or joint motion, and that bracing did not deter the muscles' ability to produce peak torque either concentrically or eccentrically. The chronically unstable ankle requires enhanced strengthening, particularly eccentrically and at higher, more functional velocities. Bracing can reduce or prevent injury to the ankle without deterring torque production.

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Eric J. Heit, Scott M. Lephart, and Susan L. Rozzi

The purpose of this study was to determine the proprioceptive effects of ankle bracing and taping. Proprioception was assessed in 26 subjects by evaluating ankle joint position sense, which was determined by the subjects' ability to actively reproduce a passively positioned joint angle. Testing was performed at positions of 30° of plantar flexion and 15° of inversion. Each subject underwent four trials at each test angle under three conditions: braced, taped, and control. For the plantar flexion test, both the braced condition and the taped condition significantly enhanced joint position sense when compared to the control condition. There was no significant difference between the braced and taped conditions. For the inversion test, the taped condition significantly enhanced joint position sense compared to the control condition. There was no significant difference between the braced and the control conditions or between the braced and the taped conditions. This study demonstrates that ankle bracing and taping improve joint position sense in the stable ankle.