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Jumpei Mizuno, Masashi Kawamura and Minoru Hoshiyama

therapists should choose their relative position to patients with a specific brain lesion, based on a brain function for viewing from a perspective. In the present study, we clarified the difference in brain activity among visual perspectives when observing another’s motor performance. Analysis techniques

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Pai-Yun Cheng, Hsiao-Feng Chieh, Chien-Ju Lin, Hsiu-Yun Hsu, Jia-Jin J. Chen, Li-Chieh Kuo and Fong-Chin Su

with Parkinson’s disease demonstrated the higher enslaving phenomenon in patients during a force ramp task in the pressing position compared with healthy adults ( Park et al., 2012 ). Making connections between sensorimotor performance and the corresponding brain activities, cerebral structure, blood

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Laura Žlibinaitė, Rima Solianik, Daiva Vizbaraitė, Dalia Mickevičienė and Albertas Skurvydas

Although we are not aware of the effects of physical activity and CR on cognition-related brain activity in overweight and obese adults, studies of older adults (who have decreased brain activity) showed that aerobic exercise training improves executive functions and increases PFC activity and functional

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Hanneke I. van Mier, Joel S. Perlmutter and Steven E. Petersen

In the present study, brain activations were measured using positron emission tomography (PET) over the course of practice. Fourteen right-handed participants were scanned during six 1-min periods of practice tracing a cutout maze design with their eyes closed. Practice-related decreases were found in the right premotor and posterior parietal cortex and left cerebellum, increases in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex. The decrease in right premotor activity and the increase in SMA was significantly correlated with a decrease in the number of stops, implying involvement in learning and storing the movement sequence. The significant correlation between decreases in errors and left cerebellar and right posterior parietal activity suggests a role in accuracy. Involvement of the primary motor cortex in motor execution is suggested by the correlation of increased activation and movement speed. These results suggest that different neural structures (involving a premotor-parietal-cerebellar circuit) play a role in a sequential maze learning task.

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

science to continue to define what normal brain activity looks like, compared to pathologic brain activity caused by injury. As a result, EEG correlates have become increasingly accepted as a method for measuring the physiological underpinnings of behavioral data. Advancement in neuroimaging has also

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Dustin R. Grooms, Adam W. Kiefer, Michael A. Riley, Jonathan D. Ellis, Staci Thomas, Katie Kitchen, Christopher A. DiCesare, Scott Bonnette, Brooke Gadd, Kim D. Barber Foss, Weihong Yuan, Paula Silva, Ryan Galloway, Jed A. Diekfuss, James Leach, Kate Berz and Gregory D. Myer

posttraining in brain activity (vertical axis: % blood oxygen level–dependent signal change pre to post) during neuroimaging of leg motor tasks and landing dynamic valgus (horizontal axis: degree collapse of knee toward midline due to hip and knee rotation indicating higher injury risk). Increases in the x

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Chun-Hao Wang and Kuo-Cheng Tu

cortical consumption in comparison with nonathletes (e.g., lower movement-related potentials; Del Percio et al., 2008 , 2010 ), suggesting that economy of brain activity can be considered as a marker of expert performance. Such an energy-saving form of neural efficiency might be presumably due to the

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Bradley D. Hatfield

or choking. The organization of the paper will begin with (1) a perspective on superior human motor performance and an explanation of the concept of psychomotor efficiency, a special case of neural efficiency, and provide evidence in support from (2) expert-novice contrasts of brain activity during

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Louisa D. Raisbeck, Jed A. Diekfuss, Dustin R. Grooms and Randy Schmitz

in the primary motor cortex, somatosensory cortex, and insular region of the left hemisphere. The authors surmised from these regions that are associated with sensory function, that an external focus promoted task-adequate brain activity for movement execution by shifting focus toward exteroceptive

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Jay P. Mehta, Matthew D. Verber, Jon A. Wieser, Brian D. Schmit and Sheila M. Schindler-Ivens

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to record human brain activity during slow (30 RPM), fast (60 RPM), passive (30 RPM), and variable rate pedaling. Ten healthy adults participated. After identifying regions of interest, the intensity and volume of brain activation in each region was calculated and compared across conditions (p < .05). Results showed that the primary sensory and motor cortices (S1, M1), supplementary motor area (SMA), and cerebellum (Cb) were active during pedaling. The intensity of activity in these areas increased with increasing pedaling rate and complexity. The Cb was the only brain region that showed significantly lower activity during passive as compared with active pedaling. We conclude that M1, S1, SMA, and Cb have a role in modifying continuous, bilateral, multijoint lower extremity movements. Much of this brain activity may be driven by sensory signals from the moving limbs.