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Pedro L. Valenzuela, Carlos Amo, Guillermo Sánchez-Martínez, Elaia Torrontegi, Javier Vázquez-Carrión, Zigor Montalvo, Alejandro Lucia and Pedro de la Villa

, supraspinal fatigue) with subsequent decrease in spinal motorneuron excitability also play a pivotal role. 1 , 2 In this context, increasing motor cortex excitability by means of noninvasive brain stimulation has been suggested to enhance physical and mental performance. 3 Together with transcranial magnetic

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Jay L. Alberts, Christopher M. Elder, Michael S. Okun and Jerrold L. Vitek

The aim of this study was to determine the effects of unilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) on the control and coordination of grasping forces produced by Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Ten advanced PD patients with unilateral DBS in the globus pallidus (GPi) or the subthalamic nucleus (STN) (5 patients in each group) performed a functional bimanual dexterous manipulation task. Experiments were performed in the “Off” medication state with DBS “On” and “Off.” DBS resulted in (a) significant clinical improvements, (b) greater maximum grip force for both limbs, (c) reduced movement time, and (d) bilateral coupling of grasping forces. There were no significant differences between the GPi and STN groups for any clinical or kinematic measures. DBS of the GPi and STN leads to an improvement in the motor functioning of advanced PD patients. Improvement in force-timing specification during DBS might allow PD patients to employ a feedforward method of force control.

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Andrew Hooyman, Alexander Garbin and Beth Fisher

Background Modulation of Intracortical Connectivity Current non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) paradigms, Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), focus on changing behaviors through up or down regulation of a single cortical region

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Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson and Heather C. Gilbert

the confluence of depression circuit 27 while deep brain stimulation in subthalamus improves motor function in Parkinson’s patients. 28 Autopsy findings of CTE include neurofibrillary tangles in dorsolateral cortex, amygdala, substantia nigra, orbitofrontal cortex, and the locus coeruleus. 24 These

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Stephen P. Bailey, Julie Hibbard, Darrin La Forge, Madison Mitchell, Bart Roelands, G. Keith Harris and Stephen Folger

hypertensive or hypotensive condition; an implanted brain stimulator; aneurysm clip or other metal in the head (except mouth); scalp wounds or infections; seizure disorder or family history of seizures; or not proficient in the English language. Prior to participation subjects read and signed a consent form

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Anson B. Rosenfeldt, Amanda L. Penko, Andrew S. Bazyk, Matthew C. Streicher, Tanujit Dey and Jay L. Alberts

. Participants Adults with a diagnosis of idiopathic PD, Hoehn and Yahr Stage II–IV, who were able to ambulate 300 or more feet with or without the use of an assistive device, were eligible to participate in this study. Exclusion criteria included: PD-specific surgical intervention such as a deep brain

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Amanda L. Penko, Jacob E. Barkley, Anson B. Rosenfeldt and Jay L. Alberts

, uncontrolled cardiovascular risk factors classifying the individual as a high-risk exerciser per the American College of Sports Medicine, 26 and having undergone any surgical procedure for the treatment of PD (eg, deep brain stimulation). Participants were initially phone screened to ensure whether the

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Victor Spiandor Beretta, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Paulo Cezar Rocha dos Santos, Lucas Simieli, Rodrigo Vitório and Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi

. , Chiari , L. , & Horak , F.B. ( 2002 ). Effects of deep brain stimulation and levodopa on postural sway in Parkinson’s disease . Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 73 ( 3 ), 267 – 274 . PubMed doi:10.1136/jnnp.73.3.267 10.1136/jnnp.73.3.267 Scharoun , S.M. , Bryden , P

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Anne Sofie B. Malling, Bo M. Morberg, Lene Wermuth, Ole Gredal, Per Bech and Bente R. Jensen

were a Hoehn–Yahr stage of 1–4 and no changes in antiparkinsonian medication for 6 weeks prior to inclusion. The exclusion criteria were treatment with deep brain stimulation, psychopharmacological treatment, or dementia (assessed as a Mini-Mental State Examination score <23). A levodopa equivalent

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Momoko Yamagata, Ali Falaki and Mark L. Latash

.B. ( 2002 ). Effects of deep brain stimulation and levodopa on postural sway in Parkinson’s disease . Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry, 73 , 267 – 274 . PubMed ID: 12185157 doi:10.1136/jnnp.73.3.267 10.1136/jnnp.73.3.267 Sarabon , N. , Panjan , A. , & Latash , M.L. ( 2013