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Ryota Nishiyori and Beverly D. Ulrich

address the use of brain imaging techniques to document the emergence of cortical organization as infants perform functional goal-directed tasks. Movement Patterns During the Fetal Period For a long time, what has been widely disseminated about the emergence of and changes in motor patterns prenatally

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić, and Urho M. Kujala

markers of cognitive decline. 3 However, it is yet to be elucidated if PA and exercise do more than preserve the function in the vulnerable brain regions in the elderly. Still, it may be that PA is effective as a neuroprotective formula. In humans, studies using structural and functional brain imaging

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Cheryl M. Glazebrook

This article explores the idea of integration as a common theme for the next decade of motor control and learning research. Theoretical advances coupled with advances in understanding individual differences and brain-imaging techniques will facilitate novel perspectives through an integrated understanding of sensory, cognitive, and emotional processing for motor control and learning. Through the support of fundamental research, discoveries that cannot be predicted today will create new insights into how motor control and learning can inform education, health care, and sport. An integrated approach is critical for designs of novel products and procedures, as many new designs are not subject to large-scale trials. To achieve the most effective integration with the public and wider scientific community, researchers should explore novel methods for sharing our findings efficiently, ethically, and effectively.

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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts, and Martin G. Edwards

Recent brain imaging research demonstrates that the use of internal visual imagery (IVI) or kinesthetic imagery (KIN) activates common and distinct brain areas. In this paper, we argue that combining the imagery modalities (IVI and KIN) will lead to a greater cognitive representation (with more brain areas activated), and this will cause a greater slalom-based motor performance compared with using IVI alone. To examine this assertion, we randomly allocated 56 participants to one of the three groups: IVI, IVI and KIN, or a math control group. Participants performed a slalom-based driving task in a driving simulator, with average lap time used as a measure of performance. Results revealed that the IVI and KIN group achieved significantly quicker lap times than the IVI and the control groups. The discussion includes a theoretical advancement on why the combination of imagery modalities might facilitate performance, with links made to the cognitive neuroscience literature and applied practice.

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Jill Whitall, Farid Bardid, Nancy Getchell, Melissa M. Pangelinan, Leah E. Robinson, Nadja Schott, and Jane E. Clark

In Part I of this series I, we looked back at the 20th century and re-examined the history of Motor Development research described in Clark & Whitall’s 1989 paper “What is Motor Development? The Lessons of History”. We now move to the 21st century, where the trajectories of developmental research have evolved in focus, branched in scope, and diverged into three new areas. These have progressed to be independent research areas, co-existing in time. We posit that the research focus on Dynamical Systems at the end of the 20th century has evolved into a Developmental Systems approach in the 21st century. Additionally, the focus on brain imaging and the neural basis of movement have resulted in a new approach, which we entitled Developmental Motor Neuroscience. Finally, as the world-wide obesity epidemic identified in the 1990s threatened to become a public health crisis, researchers in the field responded by examining the role of motor development in physical activity and health-related outcomes; we refer to this research area as the Developmental Health approach. The glue that holds these research areas together is their focus on movement behavior as it changes across the lifespan.

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Arend W. A. Van Gemmert and Hans-Leo Teulings

The term graphonomics refers to the scientific and technological effort involved in identifying relationships between the planning and generation of handwriting and drawing movements, the resulting spatial traces of writing and drawing instruments (either conventional or electronic), and the dynamic features of these traces (International Graphonomics Society, 1987). Since the term graphonomics was coined in 1982, the multidisciplinary nature of graphonomic research has attracted scientists in several fundamental and applied areas, including motor control, motor learning, motor development, movement disorders, neuropsychology, biophysics, forensic science, computer science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, among others. The many different research areas that are represented at the biennial conferences of the International Graphonomic Society (IGS) are exemplified by the variety of research papers published in special issues and books resulting from these conferences (cf. Meulenbroek & Van Gemmert, 2003; Simner & Girouard, 2000; Van Galen & Morasso, 1998; Simner, Leedham, & Thomassen, 1996; Faure, Keuss, Lorette, & Vinter, 1994; Simner, Hulstijn, & Girouard, 1994; Plamondon, 1993; Van Galen & Stelmach, 1993; Van Galen, Thomassen, & Wing, 1991; Wann, Wing, & Søvik, 1991; Plamondon & Leedham, 1990; Plamondon, Suen, & Simner, 1989; Kao, Van Galen, & Hoosain, 1986; Thomassen, Keuss, Van Galen, & Grootveld, 1983). Starting at the 10th IGS conference in Nijmegen, 2001, the influence of multidisciplinary collaborations and technical advancements expanded the scope of paradigms of researchers interested in graphonomics (e.g., finger control, isometric force control, brain imaging). This expansion of paradigms and the multidisciplinary nature of graphonomic research was pushed further into the center of fine motor control at the 11th IGS conference held in Scottsdale, 2003. This special issue of Motor Control, containing papers from this conference, exemplifies this progress.

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Tyler A. Wood, Jake M. Tablerion, Randy A. Ballard, Jerrad Zimmerman, and Jacob J. Sosnoff

spectroscopic study . Brain Imaging Behav . 2019 ; 13 ( 3 ): 735 – 749 . PubMed ID: 29802602 doi:10.1007/s11682-018-9861-9 10.1007/s11682-018-9861-9 9. Witol AD , Webbe FM . Soccer heading frequency predicts neuropsychological deficits . Arch Clin Neuropsychol . 2003 ; 18 ( 4 ): 397 – 417 . PubMed ID

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Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers, and Brendan S. Lay

.1037/0096-3445.137.2.201 18473654 5. Hocking C , Silberstein RB , Man W , Stough C , Roberts W . Evaluation of cognitive performance in the heat by functional brain imaging and psychometric testing . Comp Biochem Physiol Part A . 2001 ; 128 : 719 – 734 . doi:10.1016/S1095-6433(01)00278-1 10.1016/S1095

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Junga Lee

blood flow in adults at risk for Alzheimer’s disease . Brain Imaging and Behavior . 14 ( 4 ), 1154 – 1163 . PubMed ID: 30852709 doi:10.1007/s11682-019-00068-w 10.1007/s11682-019-00068-w 30852709 Eadie , B.D. , Redila , V.A. , & Christie , B.R. ( 2005 ). Voluntary exercise alters the

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Daniel J. Peart, Michael Graham, Callum Blades, and Ian H. Walshe

K , Polfliet M , Stiens J , Meeusen R . Effects of caffeine and maltodextrin mouth rinsing on P300, brain imaging, and cognitive performance . J Appl Physiol . 2015 ; 118 ( 6 ): 776 – 782 . PubMed ID: 25614603 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01050.2014 10.1152/japplphysiol.01050.2014 18. Bridge