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Motor Patterns Acquired Early in Life, the Brain-Behavior Coalition, and the Importance of Context

Ryota Nishiyori and Beverly D. Ulrich

address the use of brain imaging techniques to document the emergence of cortical organization as infants perform functional goal-directed tasks. Movement Patterns During the Fetal Period For a long time, what has been widely disseminated about the emergence of and changes in motor patterns prenatally

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Long-Term Physical Activity May Modify Brain Structure and Function: Studies in Young Healthy Twins

Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić, and Urho M. Kujala

markers of cognitive decline. 3 However, it is yet to be elucidated if PA and exercise do more than preserve the function in the vulnerable brain regions in the elderly. Still, it may be that PA is effective as a neuroprotective formula. In humans, studies using structural and functional brain imaging

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Catching the Integration Train: A Look Into the Next 10 Years of Motor Control and Motor Learning Research

Cheryl M. Glazebrook

This article explores the idea of integration as a common theme for the next decade of motor control and learning research. Theoretical advances coupled with advances in understanding individual differences and brain-imaging techniques will facilitate novel perspectives through an integrated understanding of sensory, cognitive, and emotional processing for motor control and learning. Through the support of fundamental research, discoveries that cannot be predicted today will create new insights into how motor control and learning can inform education, health care, and sport. An integrated approach is critical for designs of novel products and procedures, as many new designs are not subject to large-scale trials. To achieve the most effective integration with the public and wider scientific community, researchers should explore novel methods for sharing our findings efficiently, ethically, and effectively.

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Kinesthetic Imagery Provides Additive Benefits to Internal Visual Imagery on Slalom Task Performance

Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts, and Martin G. Edwards

Recent brain imaging research demonstrates that the use of internal visual imagery (IVI) or kinesthetic imagery (KIN) activates common and distinct brain areas. In this paper, we argue that combining the imagery modalities (IVI and KIN) will lead to a greater cognitive representation (with more brain areas activated), and this will cause a greater slalom-based motor performance compared with using IVI alone. To examine this assertion, we randomly allocated 56 participants to one of the three groups: IVI, IVI and KIN, or a math control group. Participants performed a slalom-based driving task in a driving simulator, with average lap time used as a measure of performance. Results revealed that the IVI and KIN group achieved significantly quicker lap times than the IVI and the control groups. The discussion includes a theoretical advancement on why the combination of imagery modalities might facilitate performance, with links made to the cognitive neuroscience literature and applied practice.

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Motor Development Research: II. The First Two Decades of the 21st Century Shaping Our Future

Jill Whitall, Farid Bardid, Nancy Getchell, Melissa M. Pangelinan, Leah E. Robinson, Nadja Schott, and Jane E. Clark

In Part I of this series I, we looked back at the 20th century and re-examined the history of Motor Development research described in Clark & Whitall’s 1989 paper “What is Motor Development? The Lessons of History”. We now move to the 21st century, where the trajectories of developmental research have evolved in focus, branched in scope, and diverged into three new areas. These have progressed to be independent research areas, co-existing in time. We posit that the research focus on Dynamical Systems at the end of the 20th century has evolved into a Developmental Systems approach in the 21st century. Additionally, the focus on brain imaging and the neural basis of movement have resulted in a new approach, which we entitled Developmental Motor Neuroscience. Finally, as the world-wide obesity epidemic identified in the 1990s threatened to become a public health crisis, researchers in the field responded by examining the role of motor development in physical activity and health-related outcomes; we refer to this research area as the Developmental Health approach. The glue that holds these research areas together is their focus on movement behavior as it changes across the lifespan.

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Connecting Sciences Using Graphonomic Research

Arend W. A. Van Gemmert and Hans-Leo Teulings

The term graphonomics refers to the scientific and technological effort involved in identifying relationships between the planning and generation of handwriting and drawing movements, the resulting spatial traces of writing and drawing instruments (either conventional or electronic), and the dynamic features of these traces (International Graphonomics Society, 1987). Since the term graphonomics was coined in 1982, the multidisciplinary nature of graphonomic research has attracted scientists in several fundamental and applied areas, including motor control, motor learning, motor development, movement disorders, neuropsychology, biophysics, forensic science, computer science, cognitive science, artificial intelligence, among others. The many different research areas that are represented at the biennial conferences of the International Graphonomic Society (IGS) are exemplified by the variety of research papers published in special issues and books resulting from these conferences (cf. Meulenbroek & Van Gemmert, 2003; Simner & Girouard, 2000; Van Galen & Morasso, 1998; Simner, Leedham, & Thomassen, 1996; Faure, Keuss, Lorette, & Vinter, 1994; Simner, Hulstijn, & Girouard, 1994; Plamondon, 1993; Van Galen & Stelmach, 1993; Van Galen, Thomassen, & Wing, 1991; Wann, Wing, & Søvik, 1991; Plamondon & Leedham, 1990; Plamondon, Suen, & Simner, 1989; Kao, Van Galen, & Hoosain, 1986; Thomassen, Keuss, Van Galen, & Grootveld, 1983). Starting at the 10th IGS conference in Nijmegen, 2001, the influence of multidisciplinary collaborations and technical advancements expanded the scope of paradigms of researchers interested in graphonomics (e.g., finger control, isometric force control, brain imaging). This expansion of paradigms and the multidisciplinary nature of graphonomic research was pushed further into the center of fine motor control at the 11th IGS conference held in Scottsdale, 2003. This special issue of Motor Control, containing papers from this conference, exemplifies this progress.

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A Commentary on Whitall and Colleagues’ 2020 Article “Motor Development Research: II. The First Two Decades of the 21st Century Shaping Our Future”

Carl Gabbard

field of Developmental Motor Neuroscience using innovative brain imaging and measurement techniques which allow insight into the neural basis of how coordinated movement develops. I agree wholeheartedly with that proposition, especially the emergence of the Developmental Systems approach and its value

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Linear Acceleration at Head Impact in Collegiate Divers: A Pilot Study

Tyler A. Wood, Jake M. Tablerion, Randy A. Ballard, Jerrad Zimmerman, and Jacob J. Sosnoff

spectroscopic study . Brain Imaging Behav . 2019 ; 13 ( 3 ): 735 – 749 . PubMed ID: 29802602 doi:10.1007/s11682-018-9861-9 10.1007/s11682-018-9861-9 9. Witol AD , Webbe FM . Soccer heading frequency predicts neuropsychological deficits . Arch Clin Neuropsychol . 2003 ; 18 ( 4 ): 397 – 417 . PubMed ID

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Prefrontal Cortex Activity in Siblings With and Without Developmental Coordination Disorder: An Exploratory Study

Mandy S. Plumb, Megan Charity, Kimberly Milla, Barry Bodt, and Nancy Getchell

gender-matched children with autism spectrum disorder ( Getchell & Liang, 2018 ), suggesting that ToH as a task and fNIRS as a brain imaging tool may be appropriate for observing children with developmental differences during motor tasks. The third study set the stage for this current research ( Milla et

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Neural Activity During Imagery Supports Three Imagery Abilities as Measured by the Movement Imagery Questionnaire-3

Brian D. Seiler, Eva V. Monsma, Roger Newman-Norlund, and Ryan Sacko

the brain are activated similarly to normal action in the absence of overt movement. The advent of brain imaging technologies has enabled biological explorations of parallel brain activity during physical movements and during imagery of those movements. Indeed, studies have utilized brain imaging