Social-media Web sites provide a strategic means for college and university athletic departments to build and maintain a strong brand presence when cultivating relationships with Facebook users. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of social media as a brand-management tool in college athletics. Specifically, this study examined the use of Facebook in the NCAA (N = 10) and in the Big 12 Athletic Conference (N = 12) by content posted throughout the 2010–11 season. These Facebook pages were examined to determine how major college sport organizations were using communication tools, types of brand-management factors, and marketing coverage. The data revealed statistically significant differences in content posted by season, type of communication tools, and fan interaction. The results from this content analysis were used to conceptualize branding, marketing, and Facebook user behavior.
Laci Wallace, Jacquelyn Wilson and Kimberly Miloch
Sungho Cho, J. Lucy Lee, June Won and Jong Kwan (Jake) Lee
The enforcement of trademark rights is a crucial practice for sport organizations’ brand management ( George, 2005 ; Le Péru, 2004 ; Ohm, 2013 ). Pursuant to the Lanham Act, 15 U.S.C. § 1151 et seq., which set federal trademark law, the owner of a legally protected mark may bring legal claim
Jason Daniels, Thilo Kunkel and Adam Karg
. Genest (Eds.), Cognitive assessment (pp. 309 – 342 ). New York, NY : Guilford Press . Chen , A.C.-H. ( 2001 ). Using free association to examine the relationship between the characteristics of brand associations and brand equity . Journal of Product & Brand Management, 10 , 439 – 451 . doi
John A. Fortunato
In being named by Sporting News magazine as the most powerful person in sports for the 20th century, former NFL commissioner Pete Rozelle is largely given credit as the visionary who developed the economic model for professional sports leagues. It was Rozelle’s idea to sell the league’s television broadcast rights as a collective entity to the highest bidding network, then have all teams share that revenue equally to help ensure competitive balance. In addition to developing an economic model that improved the brand quality of the NFL, Rozelle should be recognized as a pioneer in applying branding principles to the sports industry. This article demonstrates that Rozelle was instrumental in defining the current sports brand as more than games, but including many strategic communication initiatives. In applying Shank’s model for the branding process, Rozelle increased the NFL’s brand awareness and fostered its brand image, thus increasing the league’s brand equity and ultimately fan loyalty. Rozelle’s actions helped transform the NFL and continue to influence the entire sports industry today.
Elsa Kristiansen and Antonio S. Williams
This article explored how a renowned LPGA golfer, Suzann Pettersen, has built and leveraged her personal brand. Using the athlete brand-equity model as the theoretical framework, a qualitative case study was built by means of interviews and document analyses. Specifically, this case detailed how Pettersen and her management team endeavored to build and manage her personal brand equity through organization-produced and -controlled brand-communications strategies. The findings of this case shed light on the challenges and opportunities that athletes and their constituents face when managing human brands. Moreover, the findings of this case support the use of previously proposed sport-branding conceptualizations in a real-world setting.
Patrick Walsh and Antonio Williams
While athletes have been building and leveraging their brands for many years by introducing brand extensions, research on sport brand extensions has primarily focused on factors that influence the success of team-related extensions. However, as there is potential risk involved when introducing brand extensions, it is important for athletes to understand how consumers respond to extensions they may introduce. Through the use of self-administered web-based surveys this study provides the initial examination of this topic by exposing participants (n = 292) to hypothetical brand extensions and investigating factors that may influence perceived fit and attitudes toward athlete brand extensions. Partial least squares path modeling suggests that athlete prestige had the most significant effect on fit and attitudes for a brand extension that is considered to be a fit with an athlete’s image, while athlete attachment had the most influence on fit and attitudes for a brand extension with low perceived fit.
Daniel Maderer, Petros Parganas and Christos Anagnostopoulos
; Gladden & Funk, 2002 ; Kunkel, Doyle, Funk, Du, & McDonald, 2016 ), knowledge of how social-media marketing can be used by professional sport clubs to foster brand associations requires further investigation. In the few studies available, scholars investigated the use of social-media marketing as a brand-management
Melissa Davies, Michael L. Naraine and Brandon Mastromartino
consulting projects related with brand management in the NHL. Within the BrandNew database, Nick started his research for this project by reading through a folder called “Branding Basics” to identify what he should be focused on for this project. Some of the key points Nick wrote down from the material in
Lawrence W. Fielding, Lori K. Miller and James R. Brown
Case studies form the basis for the development of what business scholars have termed best practices scenarios. The Harlem Globetrotters International (HGI) is one of the most successful sport franchises in history. In this case study, we trace the development of HGI, from its beginnings in 1926 to its acquisition in 1993 by present owner and CEO, Mannie Jackson. We present a situational analysis of HGI from Jackson's perspective at the time of purchase. Next we outline Jackson's vision, objectives, and competitive strategy. We present Jackson's strategic brand management tactics. Next, we present Jackson's interpretation of the success of HGI's strategy and his interpretation of HGI's strengths, weaknesses, threats, and positive outlook. Appendix H presents relevant financial data that can be used to analyze HGI's success and shortcomings. Appendix I presents discussion questions. This case study is intended to be used as a teaching tool.
James M. Gladden and Daniel C. Funk
This study broadens the understanding of brand management in sport by creating the Team Association Model, a scale that identifies dimensions of brand associations, a major contributor to the creation of brand equity. Utilizing Keller’s (1993) theoretical framework of consumer-based brand equity, a thorough review of the sport literature was conducted which identified 16 potential dimensions. These 16 dimensions are derived with reference to Keller’s categorization of brand associations into ATTRIBUTE (success, head coach, star player, management, stadium, logo design, product delivery, and tradition), BENEFIT (identification, nostalgia, pride in place, escape, and peer group acceptance), and ATTITUDE (importance, knowledge, and affect). In order to evaluate the applicability of each potential dimension, a scale is developed, pre-tested, and tested on a national sample of sport consumers. Results of the confirmatory factor analysis of provided support for this paper’s theoretical notion that 16 distinct constructs underlie brand associations in sports.