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T. Christopher Greenwell, Jason M. Simmons, Meg Hancock, Megan Shreffler and Dustin Thorn

conveyed by the celebrity endorser and the product must converge or match up ( Kamins, 1990 ). The theory links the relationship between the endorser – brand fit and endorser credibility while explaining how the image of a spokesperson affects attitudes toward brands and advertisements ( Koernig & Boyd

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Thilo Kunkel, Daniel C. Funk and Daniel Lock

Sport leagues and teams are connected through their structure and brands. Therefore, league management decisions designed to attract and retain consumers are made to promote and protect the league brand as well as individual team brands ( Kunkel, Funk, & Hill, 2013 ). Sport consumers underpin the

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Jason Daniels, Thilo Kunkel and Adam Karg

Brands are constantly being introduced or reintroduced in the sport industry, with careful management and measurement of key traits critical to brand positioning as well as the development of customer equity ( Rust, Zeithaml, & Lemon, 2004 ). Specifically, sport brands may include events (e

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Thilo Kunkel, Rui Biscaia, Akiko Arai and Kwame Agyemang

that draw attention from media and corporate sponsors ( Arai et al., 2013 ; Summers & Johnson Morgan, 2008 ). As illustrated by Forbes’ ( 2017 ) inclusion of athletes in their yearly “Most Valuable Sports Brands” list, athletes themselves have become brands ( Chadwick & Burton, 2008 ). This trend has

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Henry Wear and Bob Heere

In the search for a competitive advantage, many sport organizations consider their organizations as not simply a collection of players, coaches, and managers, but as brands to be managed ( Ross, 2006 ). While sport marketing scholars have extensively examined sport brands ( Filo, Funk, & Alexandris

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Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So and Bob Heere

Advertisers and agencies increasingly recognize that in-game marketing can play a key role in modern communication objectives and is an effective means to enhance the delivery of brand messages to consumers ( Lewis & Porter, 2010 ). Recent industry reports estimate that the total revenue generated

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Christopher Rumpf and Christoph Breuer

business success, reliable measures of financial performance are essential for its future growth. Current metrics in sponsorship research such as media exposure and brand recall can hardly be linked to financial performance ( Meenaghan & O’Sullivan, 2013 ). To advance the discussion about ROI in

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Daniel Maderer, Petros Parganas and Christos Anagnostopoulos

-media marketing as a part of their marketing strategy and become among the most-followed online brands in the world ( Socialbakers, 2018 ). The wide adoption of social media by fans, as well as the use of social media for marketing purposes by sport organizations, among others, has increased interest on the topic

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Melissa Davies, Michael L. Naraine and Brandon Mastromartino

to work on the new branding for the franchise relocating from Hartford, CT, to Raleigh, NC. It was a small role, but Nick was eager and willing to learn. He sat in on important brand development meetings and took detailed notes of the brand’s transition to the Hurricanes. After the move was complete

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Brad D. Carlson and D. Todd Donavan

By integrating social identity theory with brand personality, the authors test a model of how perceptions of human brands affect consumer’s level of cognitive identification. The findings suggest that consumers view athletes as human brands with unique personalities. Additional findings demonstrate that athlete prestige and distinctiveness leads to the evaluation of athlete identification. Once consumers identified with the athlete, they were more likely to feel an emotional attachment to the athlete, identify with the athlete’s team, purchase team-related paraphernalia and increase their team-related viewership habits. The findings extend previous research on human brands and brand personalities in sports. Marketers can use the information gleaned from this study to better promote products that are closely associated with well-recognized and attractive athletes, thereby increasing consumer retail spending. In addition, the findings offer new insights to sports marketers seeking to increase team-related spectatorship by promoting the image of easily recognizable athletes.