In the search for a competitive advantage, many sport organizations consider their organizations as not simply a collection of players, coaches, and managers, but as brands to be managed ( Ross, 2006 ). While sport marketing scholars have extensively examined sport brands ( Filo, Funk, & Alexandris
Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So and Bob Heere
Advertisers and agencies increasingly recognize that in-game marketing can play a key role in modern communication objectives and is an effective means to enhance the delivery of brand messages to consumers ( Lewis & Porter, 2010 ). Recent industry reports estimate that the total revenue generated
Brandi Watkins and Jason W. Lee
This case study examined how a large university in the southern U.S. incorporated branding strategies into its social-media content. Specifically, the strategies for using text-based social media (Twitter) and visual-based social media (Instagram) to communicate brand identity through brand associations and brand personality were investigated. To do this, the authors conducted a 2-part study. The first, a content analysis of social-media content, revealed how the athletic department communicated the football team’s brand identity through brand associations and brand personality. Second, a survey assessed the perceived brand personality of the football program through social-media content to determine external perceptions of the team. Results support the use of Instagram as a branding strategy. Instagram was used more than Twitter to communicate brand associations and brand-personality cues, while survey results indicated that respondents exposed to Instagram content reported higher perceptions of brand personality than those exposed to Twitter content.
Patrick Walsh and Antonio Williams
While athletes have been building and leveraging their brands for many years by introducing brand extensions, research on sport brand extensions has primarily focused on factors that influence the success of team-related extensions. However, as there is potential risk involved when introducing brand extensions, it is important for athletes to understand how consumers respond to extensions they may introduce. Through the use of self-administered web-based surveys this study provides the initial examination of this topic by exposing participants (n = 292) to hypothetical brand extensions and investigating factors that may influence perceived fit and attitudes toward athlete brand extensions. Partial least squares path modeling suggests that athlete prestige had the most significant effect on fit and attitudes for a brand extension that is considered to be a fit with an athlete’s image, while athlete attachment had the most influence on fit and attitudes for a brand extension with low perceived fit.
Jason Warren Lee and Terence Cavanaugh
Infographics can add a resource for today’s competitive marketplace, helping differentiate individuals in a visually effective way. This can be a reflective education strategy for students to gain an understanding of who they are. This includes having a better understanding of their personal strengths and areas for personal improvement. This pedagogical approach for self-analysis and self-branding uses infographic résumés, where visual images such as diagrams, charts, and graphs are used to represent personal information or data. The students acquire new knowledge and technology skills in the course of designing, planning, and producing their own personal infographics. The process of creating infographics can be a valuable tool for self-promotional, reflection, and its integration into appropriate course curriculum (i.e., sport marketing) is addressed.
Stephanie A. Tryce and Brent Smith
This article details a sport business project intended to provide students with an opportunity to analyze critically the convergence of business, cultural, and social justice issues associated with the controversial name of the Washington Redskins football franchise. In the context of a mock debate, three teams of students represented separate interests—the Native American community, the Washington Redskins management, and Washington, D.C. government—to advocate for and against a recently proposed name change. Taking up this real topic in contemporary sport business, students received intensive exposure to self-directed learning, cultural competence, simulated debate, and spontaneous questions. Students reported in their personal reflections that the project helped improve their critical analysis of stakeholders’ positions, cultural awareness, and sensitivity to factors that can help and hinder brand meaning.
Mark S. Nagel and Lynn W. McGee
In 2002, the state of South Carolina authorized the University of South Carolina Beaufort (USCB) to alter its role and mission from a two-year college to a four-year, baccalaureate-granting institution. As part of its desire to become a “full-service” university, USCB planned to begin intercollegiate athletic competition by 2007. In addition to launching the athletic department, USCB needed to select a mascot and logo that would be appropriate not only for the new athletic department, but also for the two-campus institution that was located in the beautiful South Carolina Sea Islands. Rather than simply have the chancellor or the new athletic director select the mascot and color scheme, USCB formed a mascot selection committee comprised of various on and off-campus stakeholders who utilized survey research to solicit a wide variety of potential mascot choices before undertaking its evaluations and making its final recommendation. This case provides details regarding USCB’s mascot selection process and poses a variety of questions for students to contemplate when making athletic branding decisions.
Thilo Kunkel, Daniel C. Funk and Daniel Lock
Sport leagues and teams are connected through their structure and brands. Therefore, league management decisions designed to attract and retain consumers are made to promote and protect the league brand as well as individual team brands ( Kunkel, Funk, & Hill, 2013 ). Sport consumers underpin the
Jason Daniels, Thilo Kunkel and Adam Karg
Brands are constantly being introduced or reintroduced in the sport industry, with careful management and measurement of key traits critical to brand positioning as well as the development of customer equity ( Rust, Zeithaml, & Lemon, 2004 ). Specifically, sport brands may include events (e
Thilo Kunkel, Rui Biscaia, Akiko Arai and Kwame Agyemang
that draw attention from media and corporate sponsors ( Arai et al., 2013 ; Summers & Johnson Morgan, 2008 ). As illustrated by Forbes’ ( 2017 ) inclusion of athletes in their yearly “Most Valuable Sports Brands” list, athletes themselves have become brands ( Chadwick & Burton, 2008 ). This trend has