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Elisa S. Arch, Sarah Colón and James G. Richards

Thirty-three percent of women do not meet physical activity guidelines. 1 A study conducted in 2015 found that 17% of women said that their breasts prevented them from participating in physical activity because, for example, they experienced excessive breast and bra motion during physical activity

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Jaime Schultz

The invention of the commercial sports bra in 1977 was a significant advancement for physically active women. Despite its humble origins as an enabling technology, the sports bra has since been invested with new and varied cultural meanings and currencies. In this article I critically read popular representations of sports bras, specifically advertisements and “iconic sports-bra moments” that circulate around Brandi Chastain’s celebration of the U.S. women’s soccer team’s victory in the 1999 World Cup. I argue that such representations sexualize sports bras and the women who wear them. In addition, these representations homogenize and normalize ideals of femininity, which are considered achievable through technologies of disciplined body management, and reproduce the traditional gender order.

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Joanna Scurr, Jennifer White and Wendy Hedger

This study aimed to assess the trajectory of breast displacement in 3 dimensions during walking and running gait, as this may improve bra design and has yet to be reported. Fifteen D-cup participants had reflective markers attached to their nipples and trunk to monitor absolute and relative breast displacement during treadmill walking (5 kph) and running (10 kph). During the gait cycle, the breast followed a figure-of-eight pattern with four movement phases. Despite a time lag in resultant breast displacement compared with the trunk, similar values of breast displacement were identified across each of the four phases. Fifty-six percent of overall breast movement was vertical, suggesting that 3-D assessment and the elimination of trunk movement in 6 degrees of freedom are essential to accurately report breast displacement during the gait cycle.

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Emma Burnett, Jenny White and Joanna Scurr

Background:

The importance of physical activity is well known.1 However, previous research suggests that breast movement during exercise can be painful, embarrassing, and anecdotally deter exercise participation.2,3 Therefore, this research investigates whether the breast influences physical activity participation.

Methods:

Female respondents (n = 249) completed a breast health and physical activity survey assessing bras and bra fit, physical activity, breast pain, comments and improvements, breast history, and demographics.

Results:

Results found that the breast was a barrier to physical activity participation for 17% of women. “I can’t find the right sports bra” and “I am embarrassed by excessive breast movement” were the most influential breast related barriers to activity. Breast pain increased with vigorous activity and poor breast support. Breast health knowledge increased the use of a sports bra and levels of physical activity.

Conclusions:

The breast was the fourth greatest barrier to physical activity, behind energy/motivation (first), time constraints (second), and health (third), despite its omission from previous physical activity literature. As 33% of women were not meeting physical activity guidelines, increasing breast health knowledge may reduce barriers to physical activity.

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Claire Bridgman, Joanna Scurr, Jennifer White, Wendy Hedger and Heather Galbraith

Anecdotal reports suggest two-step star jumps cause excessive breast movement and discomfort, leading to recommendations for this activity as a diagnostic tool to determine effective breast support in a retail environment. The aim was to investigate multiplanar bare-breast kinematics during the two-step star jump and to establish the relationship between breast kinematics, discomfort and cup size. Thirty-nine females completed five two-step star jumps with no breast support after which breast discomfort was rated. To establish relative breast kinematics infrared cameras tracked the 3D co-ordinates of breast and body markers. Maximum resultant breast displacement, velocity and acceleration during jumping reached 18.7 cm, 93.1 cm·s−1 and 3.6 g, respectively. Significantly more vertical breast displacement (p < 0.01) and velocity (p < 0.01) occurred compared with mediolateral and anteroposterior kinematics. Breast discomfort increased as cup size increased (r = .61). Two-step star jumping stimulated multiplanar breast kinematics and high levels of breast discomfort. Therefore, this activity may be useful in a retail outlet to determine the function and comfort of a sports bra.

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Nancy E. Spencer

mundane object. Chapter 6 provides a comparable investigation of the sports bra, the revision of an earlier article (“Discipline and push-up: Female bodies, femininity, and sexuality in popular representations of sports bras”) published in the Sociology of Sport Journal ( Schultz, 2004 ). This chapter

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Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

Bras Ativ Fis Saúde . 2014 ; 19 ( 4 ): 441 – 454 . 10.12820/rbafs.v.19n4p441 8. Gomes GAO , Kokubun E , Mieke GI , et al . Characteristics of physical activity programs in the Brazilian primary health care system . Cad Saúde Pública . 2014 ; 30 ( 10 ): 2155 – 2168 . PubMed doi:10

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Carla Elane Silva dos Santos, Sofia Wolker Manta, Guilherme Pereira Maximiano, Susana Cararo Confortin, Tânia Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti, Eleonora d’Orsi and Cassiano Ricardo Rech

. Bueno DR , Marucci MFN , Roediger MA , Gomes I , Duarte Y , Lebrao ML . Nível de atividade física, por acelerometria em idosos do município de São Paulo: estudo SABE . Rev Bras Med Esporte . 2016 ; 22 ( 2 ): 108 – 112 . doi:10.1590/1517-869220162202148501 10

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Levy Silva Rezende, Markus Brendon Lima and Emanuel Péricles Salvador

, Sobrinho JA , Rapoport A . Epidemiologia do traumatismo na coluna vertebral . Rev Col Bras Cir . 2008 ; 35 : 88 – 93 . doi:10.1590/S0100-69912008000200005 10.1590/S0100-69912008000200005 5. Botelho RV , Albuquerque LD , Bastianello R , Arantes AA . Epidemiology of traumatic spinal

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Alessandra Madia Mantovani, Manoel Carlos Spiguel de Lima, Luis Alberto Gobbo, Enio Ricardo Vaz Ronque, Marcelo Romanzini, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Jamile Sanches Codogno and Rômulo Araújo Fernandes

reparação óssea . J Bras Patol Med . 2006 ; 42 : 5 – 12 . 4. Elloumi M , Ben Ounis O , Courteix D , et al . Long-term rugby practice enhances bone mass and metabolism in relation with physical fitness and playing position . J Bone Miner Metab . 2009 ; 27 : 713 – 720 . PubMed doi:10.1007/s00774