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Birgitta L. Baker and Kirsten K. Davison


This study examined predictors of perceived athletic competence and subsequent physical activity in a longitudinal sample of adolescent girls.


A sample of 149 girls was assessed at ages 9, 11, and 13. Perceived athletic competence (PAC) was measured at all ages. Nonaesthetic versus aesthetic sport participation, body fat percentage, and breast development were measured at age 9. Accelerometers were used to measure girls’ moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at age 13.


Girls who participated in nonaesthetic sports at age 9 reported higher PAC at age 11 than those who participated in only aesthetic sports, while more advanced breast development at age 9 was associated with greater relative declines in PAC between ages 11 and 13. Both age 11 PAC and the relative change in PAC between ages 11 and 13 were significant positive predictors of age 13 MVPA. Results were independent of age 9 socioeconomic status and self-reported physical activity.


Perceived athletic competence is a suitable target for intervention efforts designed to increase adolescent girls’ physical activity. Particular attention should be focused on girls who are overweight or experiencing puberty. Participation in nonaesthetic sports may be particularly important in the development of PAC.

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Boguslaw Wilk, Nola Pender, Kim Volterman, Oded Bar-Or and Brian W. Timmons

The influence of puberty on sweating patterns of girls exercising in the heat is not known. Nine- to 17-year-old girls, representing 4 stages of breast development: T1 (n = 21); T2 (n = 22); T3 (n = 25); and T4 (n = 22), cycled for 20 min at 60% in 35 °C. The population density of heat activated sweat glands was higher in T1 vs T3 and T4 and in T2 vs T4. Sweat drop area was lower in T1 vs T3 and in T1 vs T4, T2 vs T4 and T3 vs T4. The proportion of skin covered by sweat was lower in T1 vs T4. Sweating patterns of girls exercising in the heat are influenced by pubertal stage.

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Yasmeen Mezil, J. Obeid, Sandeep Raha, Thomas J. Hawke and Brian W. Timmons

had no diagnosed medical conditions. Pubertal status of the girls was self-assessed using breast development according to Tanner to confirm prepubertal and early pubertal staging ( 25 ). Only women  who were not using oral contraceptives in the past 6 months and who had regular menstrual cycles were

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Andrew O. Agbaje, Eero A. Haapala, Niina Lintu, Anna Viitasalo, Juuso Väistö, Sohaib Khan, Aapo Veijalainen, Tuomo Tompuri, Tomi Laitinen and Timo A. Lakka

defined as having entered clinical puberty if their breast development had started (Tanner stage ≥2) ( 26 ). Statistical Analysis Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistics software, version 25.0 (IBM Corp, Armonk, NY). Differences in the variables between boys and girls were tested

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Rodrigo Antunes Lima, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Niels Christian Møller, Lars Bo Andersen and Anna Bugge

disabilities hindering participation in PAs were obtained via a questionnaire. Pubertal status was assessed by self-report of sexual maturation using a scale of pictures of breast development for girls and genital development for boys. Numbers were rated 1 to 5, according to criteria described by Tanner. 21

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Jennifer Dekker, Katlynne Nelson, Nigel Kurgan, Bareket Falk, Andrea Josse and Panagiota Klentrou

relative body fat percent (% BF) were measured using the InBody520 bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) system (Biospace.228). The same investigator performed all measures for all participants. Sexual maturity was self-assessed using the secondary sexual characteristics scale (pubic hair and breast

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María Reyes Beltran-Valls, Enrique García Artero, Ana Capdevila-Seder, Alejandro Legaz-Arrese, Mireia Adelantado-Renau and Diego Moliner-Urdiales

standard pictures consistent with Tanner instructions ( 47 ). Two components were assessed: pubic hair growth for boys and girls, plus breast development in girls and genital development in boys. A 5-point maturity rating was used where stage 1 corresponds to the prepubertal state and stage 5 corresponds

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Rachel Massie, James Smallcombe and Keith Tolfrey

Physiological Characteristics at Baseline (Week 0) CON (n = 12) EX (n = 11) CON vs EX 95% CI a Effect size Age, mean (SD), y 13.5 (0.5) 13.0 (0.4) 0.1 to 0.8* 0.99 Stature, mean (SD), m 1.57 (0.10) 1.59 (0.07) −0.09 to 0.06 0.22 Body mass index, mean (SD), kg·m −2 19.8 (4.1) 19.6 (3.1) −3.0 to 3.4 0.05 Breast

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Jakob Tarp, Anna Bugge, Niels Christian Møller, Heidi Klakk, Christina Trifonov Rexen, Anders Grøntved and Niels Wedderkopp

(Seca 214; Seca Corporation). Both measures were conducted barefoot. Sexual maturity was self-reported by indicating resemblance to 5 drawings (progressive rating 1–5) of secondary sex characteristics as described by Tanner. 23 Pubic hair was used in boys and breast development in girls. Using this