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Antonis Kesisoglou, Andrea Nicolò and Louis Passfield

Purpose: To examine the effect of cycling exercise intensity and duration on subsequent performance and to compare the resulting acute performance decrement (APD) with total work done (TWD) and corresponding training-load (TL) metrics. Methods: A total of 14 male cyclists performed a 5-minute time trial (TT) as a baseline and after 4 initial exercise bouts of varying exercise intensity and duration. The initial exercise bouts were performed in a random order and consisted of a 5- and a 20-minute TT and a 20- and a 40-minute submaximal ride. The resulting APD was calculated as the percentage change in 5-minute TT from baseline, and this was compared with the TWD and TL metrics for the corresponding initial exercise bout. Results: Average power output was different for each of the 4 initial exercise bouts (ηp2=.971; P < .001), and all bouts resulted in an APD. But APD was only different when comparing maximal with submaximal bouts (ηp2=.862; P < .001). The APD contradicted TWD and TL metrics and was not different when comparing 5- and 20-minute maximal TTs or the 20- and 40-minute submaximal bouts. In contrast, TL metrics were different for all training sessions (ηp2=.970; P < .001). Conclusion: An APD is found after initial exercise bouts consisting of 5- and 20-minute TTs and after 20- and 40-minute of submaximal exercise that is not consistent with the corresponding values for TWD or TL. This discrepancy highlights important shortcomings when using TWD and TL to compare exercise bouts of different intensity and duration.

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Adam M. Hyde, Robert G. McMurray, Frank A. Chavoya and Daniela A. Rubin

a 2-way, T-shaped nonrebreathable valve (model HRI 2700; Hans Rudolph). Oxygen uptake (VO 2 , L/min, mL/kgLBM/min), volume of expired carbon dioxide (VCO 2 , L/min), respiratory exchange ratio, minute V E (L/min), breathing frequency (f R , breaths/min), tidal volume (V T , L), f R /V T (breaths

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Peter Brubaker, Cemal Ozemek, Alimer Gonzalez, Stephen Wiley and Gregory Collins


Underwater treadmill (UTM) exercise is being used with increased frequency for rehabilitation of injured athletes, yet there has been little research conducted on this modality.


To determine the cardiorespiratory responses of UTM vs land treadmill (LTM) exercise, particularly with respect to the relationship between heart rate (HR) and oxygen consumption (VO2).

Design and Setting:

This quantitative original research took place in sports medicine and athletic training facilities at Wake Forest University.


11 Wake Forest University student athletes (20.8 ± 0.6 y, 6 women and 5 men).


All participants completed the UTM and LTM exercise-testing protocols in random order. After 5 min of standing rest, both UTM and LTM protocols had 4 stages of increasing belt speed (2.3, 4.9, 7.3, and 9.6 km/h) followed by 3 exercise stages at 9.6 km/h with increasing water-jet resistance (30%, 40%, and 50% of jet capacity) or inclines (1%, 2%, and 4% grade).

Main Outcome Measures:

A Cosmed K4b2 device with Polar monitor was used to collect HR, ventilation (Ve), tidal volume (TV), breathing frequency (Bf), and VO2 every minute. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were also obtained each minute.


There was no significant difference between UTM and LTM for VO2 at rest or during any stage of exercise except stage 3. Furthermore, there were no significant differences between UTM and LTM for HR, Ve, Bf, and RPE on any exercise stage. Linear regression of HR vs VO2, across all stages of exercise, indicates a similar relationship in these variables during UTM (r = .94, y = .269x − 10.86) and LTM (r = .95, y = .291x − 12.98).


These data indicate that UTM and LTM exercise elicits similar cardiorespiratory responses and that HR can be used to guide appropriate exercise intensity for college athletes during UTM.

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Arthur H. Bossi, Cristian Mesquida, Louis Passfield, Bent R. Rønnestad and James G. Hopker

(6) Races in the previous season 13 (11) Training in the previous season, h 523 (218) Current training, h·wk −1 11 (5) Abbreviations: [La] peak , peak blood lactate concentration; ƒ Rpeak , peak breathing frequency; LT, lactate threshold; RER peak , peak respiratory exchange ratio; RPE peak , peak

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Marco Van Brussel, Bart C. Bongers, Erik H.J. Hulzebos, Marcella Burghard and Tim Takken

capacity, a low VO 2 peak, and a low VAT. In these children, tidal volume increases to its maximum (50% of the vital capacity and/or 80% of the inspiratory capacity) at a relatively low WR ( 17 , 27 , 30 ). Any further increase in VE is due to an increase breathing frequency (BF). BF is age dependent and

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Xiao Bao, Jie-Wen Tan, Ying Long, Howe Liu and Hui-Yu Liu

in heart rate more than +30 beats/min or in ventilation (breathing frequency more than 24 breaths/min during hypoxic exposures), we will remove the face mask immediately and allow the subject to breathe room air directly. This removal of the face mask will eliminate the source of the subject

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Carlo Massaroni, Eugenio Cassetta and Sergio Silvestri

of breath-by-breath temporal parameters (ie, inspiratory time, breathing frequency [calculated as the ratio between 60 and the total duration of the each breath] and the ratio inspiratory time/total respiratory cycle time) correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were carried out. Then the coefficient

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Paolo T. Pianosi

air required by exercising muscle and to eliminate CO 2 produced from fuel oxidation by these same muscles. Ergo, it is closely tied to metabolism ( 9 ) and is regulated to maintain (in absence of lung disease) more or less normal arterial blood gas tensions ( 17 ). One can increase breathing

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Ana B. Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A. Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A. Castro, Francisco J. Calderón and Pedro J. Benito

ascent that could be related to the different gradients and standing cycling position. Although cycling position does not seem to affect VO 2 , standing while climbing seems to elicit higher breathing frequency and ventilatory rate. 7 Moreover, ventilation increased slightly at the last kilometer, which

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Andrea Nicolò, Marco Montini, Michele Girardi, Francesco Felici, Ilenia Bazzucchi and Massimo Sacchetti

high-intensity intermittent cycling protocols with different work-to-rest ratios . Int J Sports Physiol Perform . 2014 ; 9 ( 1 ): 151 – 160 . PubMed ID: 23628754 doi:10.1123/ijspp.2012-0289 23628754 10.1123/ijspp.2012-0289 17. Bechbache RR , Duffin J . The entrainment of breathing frequency by