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Stephen P. Andon and Davis W. Houck

This analysis examines the commodification of the 2009 National Hockey League (NHL) Winter Classic, a professional outdoor hockey game staged in Chicago, IL, at Wrigley Field. Given the dynamic relationship between sports and corporate sponsorship, ratings, merchandise, and broadcast-rights contracts, it is critical to understand how the principles of late capitalism influence both the sport and fans in increasingly controlling ways. As a result, this study combines an understanding of the principles of production and consumption, examining how economic principles manifested themselves in the commodification of nostalgic elements and made the NHL Winter Classic the sport’s most lucrative event in decades.

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Fernando Borges

mediatization process is not uniform, and the richest organizations are in more advanced stages. Since soccer clubs were at the center of this mediated spectacle, top-flight clubs multiplied their revenues, through either new broadcast contracts or new sponsorship revenues, which were increased by their global

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Zachary C.T. Evans, Jess C. Dixon, and Terry Eddy

securing television and broadcast contracts, training referees and officials, cultivating and developing a positive, marketable brand image, and creating a game schedule for each season of play ( Kostuk & Willoughby, 2012 ). In a normal year, before COVID-19, it was estimated that the League grossed

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John Wong and Scott R. Jedlicka

in the 1960s. Supported by television broadcast contracts, the league challenged—and eventually forced a merger with—the established National Football League. 21 The 1950s were also the beginning of the “cookie-cutter era” in the history of sport stadia, marked by the construction of consumer- and

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Hojun Sung, Brian M. Mills, and Michael Mondello

results provide important guidance on revenue priorities and cannibalization of attendance and broadcast contracts as the league moves forward, while also considering the complementarities that may exist ( Zhang, Pease, & Smith, 1998 ). Furthermore, offering stadiums that provide protection of unpleasant

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Travis R. Bell

news coverage. How can this content be studied within broadcast content? (h) How might the digital era of social media and user-generated content impact the five news characteristics offered by Altheide? (i) ESPN has broadcast contracts with nearly every major U.S. sports league and several