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Ana Queralt and Javier Molina-García

The built environment might influence population health by facilitating the physical activity (PA) for recreation and transportation. 1 Unlike the adult population, 1 the associations between objectively measured built-environment attributes and PA behavior in adolescents have so far been

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Jeanette Gustat, Christopher E. Anderson, Keelia O’Malley, Tian Hu, Rachel G. Tabak, Karin Valentine Goins, Cheryl Valko, Jill S. Litt, and Amy A. Eyler

(diverse housing types, mixed land use, housing density, compact development patterns, and levels of open space). 11 Characteristics of built environments have been linked to chronic diseases and can have a long-term impact on those who interact with them. 17 – 20 Changing the environment to support PA

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Kiarri N. Kershaw, Derek J. Marsh, Emma G. Crenshaw, Rebecca B. McNeil, Victoria L. Pemberton, Sabrina A. Cordon, David M. Haas, Michelle P. Debbink, Brian M. Mercer, Samuel Parry, Uma Reddy, George Saade, Hyagriv Simhan, Ronald J. Wapner, Deborah A. Wing, William A. Grobman, and for the NICHD nuMoM2b and NHLBI nuMoM2b Heart Health Study Networks

activity during pregnancy. Several features of the neighborhood built environment, which have been shown to promote physical activity in the general population, could also impact physical activity during pregnancy. A recent review on the built environment and physical activity found that higher walkability

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Angie L. Cradock, David Buchner, Hatidza Zaganjor, John V. Thomas, James F. Sallis, Kenneth Rose, Leslie Meehan, Megan Lawson, René Lavinghouze, Mark Fenton, Heather M. Devlin, Susan A. Carlson, Torsha Bhattacharya, and Janet E. Fulton

lanes, and public transportation on routes that connect homes, schools, parks, and workplaces. 2 The strategy is often referred to as using built environment approaches to promote physical activity. 2 By creating and/or modifying environmental characteristics of a community, this approach increases

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Javier Molina-García and Ana Queralt

environmental factor related to active transportation behavior. Most studies correlate neighborhood characteristics to physical activity in adults or adolescents, 5 – 7 and the built environment attributes usually analyzed are residential density, road intersection density, and land-use mix as walkability

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Gohei Kato, Tomoyuki Arai, Yasuhiro Morita, and Hiroaki Fujita

of the built environment on the frequency of going outdoors in this population, which may vary according to the ability to conduct activities of daily living (ADL), have not been adequately investigated in Japan. It might be hypothesized that community-dwelling older adults with more restricted ADL

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Kevin Lanza, Brian Stone Jr, Paul M. Chakalian, Carina J. Gronlund, David M. Hondula, Larissa Larsen, Evan Mallen, and Regine Haardörfer

determinants results in multilevel interventions that have a higher likelihood of changing behavior. 6 Figure 1 —Ecological model of 4 domains of active living. 5 Behavior setting, also known as the built environment, is an environmental level within the ecological model. 7 , 8 Behavior settings represent the

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Robert Fields, Andrew T. Kaczynski, Melissa Bopp, and Elizabeth Fallon

Background:

Few studies of the built environment and physical activity or other health behaviors have examined minority populations specifically. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between the built environment and multiple health behaviors and outcomes among Hispanic adults.

Methods:

Community partners distributed surveys (n = 189) in 3 communities in southwest Kansas. Logistic regression was used to examine relationships between neighborhood perceptions and 4 outcomes.

Results:

Meeting physical activity recommendations was associated with the presence of sidewalks and a safe park, and inversely related to higher crime. Residential density and shops nearby were related to active commuting. Sedentary behavior was inversely related to having a bus stop, bike facilities, safe park, interesting things to look at, and seeing people active. Finally, seeing people active was positively associated with being overweight.

Conclusions:

This study suggests that among Hispanics, many built environment variables are related to health behaviors and should be targets for future neighborhood change efforts and research.

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Jennifer D. Roberts, Lindsey Rodkey, Rashawn Ray, and Brian E. Saelens

factors, such as parental perceptions and built environment (BE) infrastructure and design, should be considered as well. 5 Parental perceptions are important to consider when assessing youth AT behavior. Multiple studies noted associations between parental perceived risk of danger and lower AT among

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Eboneé N. Butler, Anita M.H. Ambs, Jill Reedy, and Heather R. Bowles

Background:

Examining relationships between features of the built environment and physical activity is achievable with geographic information systems technology (GIS). The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to identify GIS measures that can be considered for inclusion in national public health surveillance efforts. In the absence of a universally agreed upon framework that integrates physical, social, and cultural aspects of the environment, we used a multidimensional model of access to synthesize the literature.

Methods:

We identified 29 studies published between 2005 and 2009 with physical activity outcomes that included 1 or more built environment variables measured using GIS. We sorted built environment measures into 5 dimensions of access: accessibility, availability, accommodation, affordability, and acceptability.

Results:

Geospatial land-use data, street network data, environmental audits, and commercial databases can be used to measure the availability, accessibility, and accommodation dimensions of access. Affordability and acceptability measures rely on census and self-report data.

Conclusions:

GIS measures have been included in studies investigating the built environment and physical activity, although few have examined more than 1 construct of access. Systematic identification and collection of relevant GIS measures can facilitate collaboration and accelerate the advancement of research on the built environment and physical activity.