Burnout is most often described as “an enduring experiential syndrome” ( Maslach & Jackson, 1986 ) with three central characteristics: emotional exhaustion (a feeling of being overwhelmed and emotionally depleted by work), depersonalisation (a cynical attitude towards, or withdrawal from, personal
Peter Olusoga, Marte Bentzen and Goran Kentta
Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill and Howard K. Hall
some it can be experienced as unsupportive and marginalizing ( Roderick, 2006 ). In the hope of better safeguarding junior athletes from the potential negative consequences of pursuing a career in soccer, the current study examined burnout and depressive symptoms among junior athletes attending youth
Kylie McNeill, Natalie Durand-Bush and Pierre-Nicolas Lemyre
who perceive demands to exceed their ability to cope are at risk of negative outcomes, including burnout, a psychological syndrome that arises in response to chronic stress ( Smith, 1986 ). Derived from the occupational literature, this syndrome is characterized by three core dimensions: emotional
Thomas D. Raedeke, Tracy L. Granzyk and Anne Warren
This study examined coaching burnout from a commitment perspective that highlights the link between burnout and feelings of entrapment. Theoretically, entrapment occurs when coaches become less attracted to coaching but feel they have to maintain their involvement because (a) they perceive a lack of attractive alternatives to coaching, (b) they believe they have too much invested to quit, or (c) they think others expect them to continue coaching. For this study, 295 age-group swim coaches completed a survey that included scales to assess the theoretical determinants of commitment, the exhaustion component of burnout, and commitment itself. Data analyses involved a 2-step approach. (Initially, cluster analysis results revealed 3 clusters of coaches with characteristics reflecting profiles based on the theoretical determinants of commitment.) Subsequently, MANOVA revealed significant differences between the 3 clusters on exhaustion and commitment. Coaches with characteristics of entrapment reported significantly higher exhaustion than the other groups and near average commitment scores.
Brandonn S. Harris and Jack C. Watson II
Recent research has used self-determination theory to examine athlete burnout among adults. However, there is a dearth of theory-driven research investigating burnout among young athletes, particularly as it pertains to its sociological influences. With research suggesting that motives for sport (dis)continuation vary among athletes of different ages, this study assessed the utility of self-determination theory (SDT) and Coakley’s model for youth burnout while examining developmental differences. Participants included swimmers of ages 7–17. Analyses revealed a model that approached adequate ft indices and accounted for 70% of the burnout variance. Results supported utilizing these theories to understand youth burnout while accounting for developmental differences.
Jeffrey J. Martin, Betty Kelley and Robert C. Eklund
The purpose of this investigation was to examine stress and burnout in athletic directors. Using Kelley’s (1994) original model we hypothesized that stress mediated the influence of social support, hardiness, and career issues on burnout. A second model, based on Smith’s (1986) contentions, allowed stress predictors to directly influence burnout in addition to influencing burnout through stress. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses supported the respecified model over Kelley’s (1994) original model. Athletic directors with a tendency to find career issues stressful, and who were low in hardiness, experienced elevated stress and burnout. Specifically, stress predictors had a direct influence on burnout, as well as an indirect influence through stress. Descriptive data classified athletic directors as enduring greater levels of emotional exhaustion than depersonalization and personal accomplishment.
Betty C. Kelley, Robert C. Eklund and Michelle Ritter-Taylor
The purpose of this investigation was to examine stress and burnout among collegiate tennis coaches. Three alternative models of stress-mediated relationships between personal/situational variables (hardiness, coaching issues, competitive level, gender, trait anxiety, initiating and consideration leadership styles) and burnout among men (n = 163) and women (n = 98) collegiate head tennis coaches were examined. Preliminary analysis revealed that the tennis coaches in this investigation were suffering from levels of burnout similar to those of other helping professionals working in higher education (Maslach & Jackson, 1986). A gender-by-competition-level (2 × 2) MANOVA on study variables revealed a significant main effect for gender but not for competition level. The women had a higher tendency than the men did to find coaching issues stressful. Structural equation modeling revealed that the stress-mediation model, also featuring direct effects of personality/dispositional variables on burnout, accounted for observed relationships in data more adequately than the other alternative models did.
Nicole Dubuc-Charbonneau and Natalie Durand-Bush
The purpose of this study was to implement and assess the impact of a person-centered, feel-based self-regulation intervention on the stress, burnout, well-being, and self-regulation capacity of eight university student-athletes experiencing burnout. This was warranted given the negative outcomes associated with athlete burnout, the scarcity of burnout research focusing on student-athletes, and the lack of intervention research addressing burnout in sport.
A mixed methods design including questionnaires administered at four time points during the athletic season, pre- and postintervention interviews, and multiple intervention sessions was used.
Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed that stress and burnout levels significantly decreased, and well-being and self-regulation capacity levels significantly increased as the intervention progressed. The qualitative data supported these findings.
It appears that university student-athletes participating in this type of intervention can learn to effectively manage themselves and their environment to reduce adverse symptoms and improve optimal functioning.
Edel Langan, John Toner, Catherine Blake and Chris Lonsdale
We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT) to test the effects of a self-determination theory-based intervention on athlete motivation and burnout. In addition, we examined the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. We randomly assigned youth Gaelic football coaches (N = 6) and their teams to an experimental or a delayed treatment control group (n = 3 each group). We employed linear mixed modeling to analyze changes in player motivation and burnout as a result of their coach participating in a 12-week SDT-based intervention. In addition, we conducted a fidelity assessment to examine whether the intervention was implemented as planned. The findings demonstrated the feasibility and acceptability of implementing a self-determination theory-based intervention in the coaching domain. In addition, this study demonstrated favorable trends in the quality of player motivation and burnout symptoms as a result of an SDT-based intervention.
Ralph Appleby, Paul Davis, Louise Davis and Henrik Gustafsson
associated with competition, organizational demands, and interpersonal relationships ( Chan, Londsdale, & Fung, 2012 ; Lu et al., 2016 ). Although stress is widely acknowledged to be an inherent aspect of competitive sport, research indicates that chronic stress can lead to the development of burnout