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Dylan C. Perry, Christopher C. Moore, Colleen J. Sands, Elroy J. Aguiar, Zachary R. Gould, Catrine Tudor-Locke and Scott W. Ducharme

equivocal and may yield inconsistent intensity responses across individuals. Alternatively, walking cadence (in steps per minute) is strongly associated with metabolic intensity. 3 A walking cadence of ∼100 steps per minute correlates with absolutely-defined moderate-intensity PA, or 3.0 to 5.9 METs. 3 – 5

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Harsh H. Buddhadev, Daniel L. Crisafulli, David N. Suprak and Jun G. San Juan

reduce the efficacy of and limit the improvements achieved during the rehabilitation process. However, an unanswered question is, “do individuals with knee OA demonstrate interlimb asymmetry in pedaling mechanics when cycling over a range of submaximal workload and cadence combinations?” For individuals

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

, and pedometers) that count steps have fueled further interest in using step-based metrics (e.g., steps/day, cadence [steps/min]) to quantify ambulatory physical activity volume and intensity. Communicating ambulatory physical activity using step-based metrics is appealing; a step is an intuitive and

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Jana Slaght, Martin Sénéchal and Danielle R. Bouchard

identify exercise intensity. Reaching MVPA for older adults is feasible ( Colley et al., 2011 ), however, maintaining that intensity for bouts of 10 min or more is the challenge. Walking cadence is a method that may help older adults identify and maintain the appropriate intensity. The general

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Elroy J. Aguiar, John M. Schuna Jr., Tiago V. Barreira, Emily F. Mire, Stephanie T. Broyles, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William D. Johnson and Catrine Tudor-Locke

physical activity guidelines ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008 ). Walking cadence (steps per minute), a temporal parameter of gait, has been associated with intensity of walking behavior, whereby higher cadences elicit greater intensities ( Tudor-Locke & Rowe, 2012 ). Accelerometers

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Elroy J. Aguiar, Zachary R. Gould, Scott W. Ducharme, Chris C. Moore, Aston K. McCullough and Catrine Tudor-Locke

intended intensity to meet PA guidelines. Walking is a feasible (low cost and low skill) mode of PA and is thus often recommended as a means of achieving public health PA guidelines. 5 , 7 Notably, walking cadence (steps/min) has been established as a valid proxy of ambulatory intensity 8 , 9 and

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Ralph Beneke, Tobias G.J. Weber and Renate M. Leithäuser

It is well known that cycling cadences in terms of pedal revolutions per minute (rpm) affect metabolic responses over a wide range of given exercise intensities. 1 – 4 At low exercise intensities, blood lactate concentration (BLC) and respiratory measures are higher at high than at low rpm. As

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Ernst A. Hansen and Gerald Smith

Cadence choice during cycling has been of considerable interest among cyclists, coaches, and researchers for nearly 100 years. The present review examines and summarizes the current knowledge of factors affecting the freely chosen cadence during submaximal cycling and of the influence of cadence choice on performance. In addition, suggestions for future research are given along with scientifically based, practical recommendations for those involved in cycling. Within the past 10 years, a number of papers have been published that have brought novel insight into the subject. For example, under the influence of spinal central pattern generators, a robust innate voluntary motor rhythm has been suggested as the primary basis for freely chosen cadence in cycling. This might clarify the cadence paradox in which the freely chosen cadence during low-to-moderate submaximal cycling is considerably higher and thereby less economical than the energetically optimal cadence. A number of factors, including age, power output, and road gradient, have been shown to affect the choice of cadence to some extent. During high-intensity cycling, close to the maximal aerobic power output, cyclists choose an energetically economical cadence that is also favorable for performance. In contrast, the choice of a relatively high cadence during cycling at low-to-moderate intensity is uneconomical and could compromise performance during prolonged cycling.

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Harsh H. Buddhadev and Philip E. Martin

studies have examined the effects of external power output and cadence on aerobic demand or energy expenditure ( Belli & Hintzy, 2002 ; Bigland-Ritchie & Woods, 1974 ; Chavarren & Calbet, 1999 ; Gaesser & Brooks, 1975 ; Marsh & Martin, 1993 ; Samozino, Horvais, & Hintzy, 2006 ). Influences of power

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Umberto Emanuele, Tamara Horn and Jachen Denoth


The main aim of this study was to compare the freely chosen cadence (FCC) and the cadence at which the blood lactate concentration at constant power output is minimized (optimal cadence [Copt]). The second aim was to examine the effect of a concomitant change of road incline and body position on FCC, the maximal external power output (Pmax), and the corresponding Copt.


FCC, Copt, and Pmax were analyzed under 2 conditions: cycling on level ground in a dropped position (LGDP) and cycling uphill in an upright position (UHUP). Seven experienced cyclists participated in this study. They cycled on a treadmill to test the 2 main hypotheses: Experienced cyclists would choose an adequate cadence close to Copt independent of the cycling condition, and FCC and Copt would be lower and Pmax higher for UHUP than with LGDP.


Most but not all experienced cyclists chose an adequate cadence close to Copt. Independent of the cycling condition, FCC and Copt were not statistically different. FCC (82.1 ± 11.1 and 89.3 ± 10.6 rpm, respectively) and Copt (81.5 ± 9.8 and 87.7 ± 10.9 rpm, respectively) were significantly lower and Pmax was significantly higher (2.0 ± 2.1%) for UHUP than for LGDP.


Most experienced cyclists choose a cadence near Copt to minimize peripheral fatigue at a given power output independent of the cycling condition. Furthermore, it is advantageous to use a lower cadence and a more upright body position during uphill cycling.