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Dylan C. Perry, Christopher C. Moore, Colleen J. Sands, Elroy J. Aguiar, Zachary R. Gould, Catrine Tudor-Locke, and Scott W. Ducharme

equivocal and may yield inconsistent intensity responses across individuals. Alternatively, walking cadence (in steps per minute) is strongly associated with metabolic intensity. 3 A walking cadence of ∼100 steps per minute correlates with absolutely-defined moderate-intensity PA, or 3.0 to 5.9 METs. 3 – 5

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Harsh H. Buddhadev, Daniel L. Crisafulli, David N. Suprak, and Jun G. San Juan

reduce the efficacy of and limit the improvements achieved during the rehabilitation process. However, an unanswered question is, “do individuals with knee OA demonstrate interlimb asymmetry in pedaling mechanics when cycling over a range of submaximal workload and cadence combinations?” For individuals

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Catrine Tudor-Locke and Elroy J. Aguiar

, and pedometers) that count steps have fueled further interest in using step-based metrics (e.g., steps/day, cadence [steps/min]) to quantify ambulatory physical activity volume and intensity. Communicating ambulatory physical activity using step-based metrics is appealing; a step is an intuitive and

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Leila Selimbegović, Olivier Dupuy, Julie Terache, Yannick Blandin, Laurent Bosquet, and Armand Chatard

unrelated to the upcoming physical exercise. Last, instructions will demand that participants maintain a constant cadence rather than simply doing their best. To the best of our knowledge, the present study is the first to examine the effect of unrelated evaluative threat on cadence during a constant

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Jana Slaght, Martin Sénéchal, and Danielle R. Bouchard

identify exercise intensity. Reaching MVPA for older adults is feasible ( Colley et al., 2011 ), however, maintaining that intensity for bouts of 10 min or more is the challenge. Walking cadence is a method that may help older adults identify and maintain the appropriate intensity. The general

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Elroy J. Aguiar, John M. Schuna Jr., Tiago V. Barreira, Emily F. Mire, Stephanie T. Broyles, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, William D. Johnson, and Catrine Tudor-Locke

physical activity guidelines ( U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2008 ). Walking cadence (steps per minute), a temporal parameter of gait, has been associated with intensity of walking behavior, whereby higher cadences elicit greater intensities ( Tudor-Locke & Rowe, 2012 ). Accelerometers

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Elroy J. Aguiar, Zachary R. Gould, Scott W. Ducharme, Chris C. Moore, Aston K. McCullough, and Catrine Tudor-Locke

intended intensity to meet PA guidelines. Walking is a feasible (low cost and low skill) mode of PA and is thus often recommended as a means of achieving public health PA guidelines. 5 , 7 Notably, walking cadence (steps/min) has been established as a valid proxy of ambulatory intensity 8 , 9 and

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Ralph Beneke, Tobias G.J. Weber, and Renate M. Leithäuser

It is well known that cycling cadences in terms of pedal revolutions per minute (rpm) affect metabolic responses over a wide range of given exercise intensities. 1 – 4 At low exercise intensities, blood lactate concentration (BLC) and respiratory measures are higher at high than at low rpm. As

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Ernst A. Hansen and Gerald Smith

Cadence choice during cycling has been of considerable interest among cyclists, coaches, and researchers for nearly 100 years. The present review examines and summarizes the current knowledge of factors affecting the freely chosen cadence during submaximal cycling and of the influence of cadence choice on performance. In addition, suggestions for future research are given along with scientifically based, practical recommendations for those involved in cycling. Within the past 10 years, a number of papers have been published that have brought novel insight into the subject. For example, under the influence of spinal central pattern generators, a robust innate voluntary motor rhythm has been suggested as the primary basis for freely chosen cadence in cycling. This might clarify the cadence paradox in which the freely chosen cadence during low-to-moderate submaximal cycling is considerably higher and thereby less economical than the energetically optimal cadence. A number of factors, including age, power output, and road gradient, have been shown to affect the choice of cadence to some extent. During high-intensity cycling, close to the maximal aerobic power output, cyclists choose an energetically economical cadence that is also favorable for performance. In contrast, the choice of a relatively high cadence during cycling at low-to-moderate intensity is uneconomical and could compromise performance during prolonged cycling.

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Harsh H. Buddhadev and Philip E. Martin

studies have examined the effects of external power output and cadence on aerobic demand or energy expenditure ( Belli & Hintzy, 2002 ; Bigland-Ritchie & Woods, 1974 ; Chavarren & Calbet, 1999 ; Gaesser & Brooks, 1975 ; Marsh & Martin, 1993 ; Samozino, Horvais, & Hintzy, 2006 ). Influences of power