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Michael D. Ross and Elizabeth G. Fontenot

Context:

The standing heel-rise test has been recommended as a means of assessing calf-muscle performance. To the authors' knowledge, the reliability of the test using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) has not been reported.

Objective:

To determine the test-retest reliability of the standing heel-rise test.

Design:

Single-group repeated measures.

Participants:

Seventeen healthy subjects.

Settings and Infevention:

Each subject was asked to perform as many standing heel raises as possible during 2 testing sessions separated by 7 days.

Main Outcome Measures:

Reliability data for the standing heel-rise test were studied through a repeated-measures analysis of variance, ICC2, 1 and SEMs.

Results:

The ICC2,1 and SEM values for the standing heel-rise test were .96 and 2.07 repetitions, respectively.

Conclusions:

The standing heel-rise test offers clinicians a reliable assessment of calfmuscle performance. Further study is necessary to determine the ability of the standing heel-rise test to detect functional deficiencies in patients recovering from lower leg injury or surgery

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Jeffery L. Huston, Michelle A. Sandrey, Mathew W. Lively and Kevin Kotsko

Context:

There is limited information on the effect of dynamic fatiguing of the plantar flexors on joint-position sense (JPS).

Objective:

To examine the effects of fatigue on JPS for ankle plantar flexion (PF) and dorsiflexion (DF).

Design:

A 2 × 2 factorial design.

Setting:

Research laboratory.

Participants:

20 healthy subjects (10 men, 10 women; age 21.75 ± 1.48 years).

Interventions:

The subjects were tested at 10° DF and 20° PF in the nonfatigued and fatigued conditions on a custom-built JPS device. To induce fatigue, subjects stood with both feet in the plantar-flexed position until they could no longer hold the posture.

Main Outcome Measures:

JPS absolute error was measured at 10° DF and 20° PF.

Results:

There was no significant main effect for condition, measurement, or interaction between condition and measurement.

Conclusion:

With no difference between conditions, the main controller of conscious JPS of the lower extremity might be the tibialis anterior.

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Sara B. Giordano, Richard L. Segal and Thomas A. Abelew

The purpose of this study was to investigate the end-point force trajectories of the fibularis longus (FIB), lateral gastrocnemius (LG), and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. Most information about individual muscle function has come from studies that use models based on electromyographic (EMG) recordings. In this study (N = 20 subjects) we used electrical stimulation (20 Hz) to elicit activity in individual muscles, recorded the end-point forces at the foot, and verified the selectivity of stimulation by using magnetic resonance imaging. Unexpectedly, no significant differences were found between LG and MG force directions. Stimulation of LG and MG resulted in downward and medial or lateral forces depending on the subject. We found FIB end-point forces to be significantly different from those of LG and MG. In all subjects, stimulation of FIB resulted in downward and lateral forces. Based on our results, we suggest that there are multiple factors determining when and whether LG or MG will produce a medial or lateral force and FIB consistently plays a significant role in eversion/abduction and plantar flexion. We suggest that the intersubject variability we found is not simply an artifact of experimental or technical error but is functionally relevant and should be addressed in future studies and models.

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Amandda de Souza, Cristiano Gomes Sanchotene, Cristiano Moreira da Silva Lopes, Jader Alfredo Beck, Affonso Celso Kulevicz da Silva, Suzana Matheus Pereira and Caroline Ruschel

posterior thigh and calf muscles on hip and ankle ROM in physically active men. The following hypotheses were formulated: (1) both protocols will have a significant effect on hip and ankle ROM, and (2) the effect on ROM will be different depending on the protocol duration. Methods Design This is a cross

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Tijs Delabastita, Stijn Bogaerts and Benedicte Vanwanseele

-related decline in functional activities characterized by high force production in the calf muscles. Methods Literature Search A systemic literature search was conducted on May 17, 2017. The electronic bibliographic databases PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus were searched. The search terms

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Francesco Campa, Alessandro Piras, Milena Raffi and Stefania Toselli

caliper (Santa Crus, CA). Skinfold values were used in anthropometric regression equations 15 to predict the following BC parameters: body density, %F, FM, and fat-free mass. Thigh muscle area, calf muscle area, UMA, TFA, calf fat area, and UFA were calculated according to Frisancho. 16 Statistical

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Igor E.J. Magalhães, Rinaldo A. Mezzarane and Rodrigo L. Carregaro

electrophysiological responses following the use of elastic tapes applied on the calf muscles of healthy individuals during 48 hours. It is also of interest to investigate the excitability of different subpopulations of motoneurons from an ankle extensor (soleus) and to describe the potential changes in the pattern of

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Yaara Nadiv, Ricki Vachbroit, Amit Gefen, David Elad, Uri Zaretsky, Dani Moran, Pinchas Halpern and Anat Ratnovsky

The respiratory muscles may fatigue during prolonged exercises and thereby become a factor that limits extreme physical activity. The aim of the current study was to determine whether respiratory muscle fatigue imposes a limitation on extreme physical activity of well-trained young men. Electromyography (EMG) signals of respiratory (external intercostal and sternomastoid) and calf muscles (gastrocnemius) were measured (N = 8) during 1 hr of treadmill marching at a speed of 8 km/hr with and without a 15 kg backpack. The root mean square (RMS) and the mean power frequency of the EMG signals were evaluated for calculating fatigue indices. The EMG RMS revealed that the respiratory and calf muscles did not fatigue during the marching without a backpack load. The study did show, however, a significant rise in the EMG values when a backpack was carried with respect to the no-load condition (p < .05), which suggests that respiratory muscles should be trained in military recruits who are required to carry loaded backpacks while marching.

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Stephen D. Patterson and Richard A. Ferguson

The response of calf-muscle strength, resting blood flow, and postocclusive blood flow (PObf) were investigated after 4 wk of low-load resistance training (LLRT) with and without blood-flow restriction in a matched-leg design. Ten untrained older individuals age 62–73 yr performed unilateral plantar-flexion LLRT at 25% 1-repetition maximum (1RM). One limb was trained with normal blood flow and the other had blood flow restricted using a pressure cuff above the knee. 1RM, isometric maximal voluntary contraction, and isokinetic strength at 0.52 rad/s increased (p < .05) more after LLRT with blood-flow restriction than with normal blood flow. Peak PObf increased (p < .05) after LLRT with blood-flow restriction, compared with no change after LLRT with normal blood flow. These results suggest that 4 wk of LLRT with blood-flow restriction may be beneficial to older individuals to improve strength and blood-flow parameters.

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Laura A. Verbruggen, Melissa M. Thompson and Chris J. Durall

fasciitis. Treatment allocation was not randomized. Subjects were placed in a calf muscle stretching plus low-Dye taping group (LDT) or a calf muscle stretching only group (control). 92 subjects (M = 37, F = 37; mean age 50 [ ± 14]) clinically diagnosed with plantar fasciitis. Randomly assigned to low