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Justin Robert Keene, Collin Berke and Brandon H. Nutting

This study, based on previous work, investigated the interaction of camera angle, arousing content, and an individual’s general and school-specific fanship on the cognitive processing of and emotional reactions to sport communication from a top-down and bottom-up perspective. Cognitive processing was defined as the resources available for encoding and was indexed using secondary-task reaction times, and self-reported positivity, negativity, and arousal were also measured as an index of emotional reactions. Results indicate that general and school-specific fanship have differential effects on cognitive processing and emotional reactions. In addition, in a replication of previous work, it would appear that different camera angles do not have different effects on cognitive processing. The implications of the top-down and bottom-up approach for the sport communication experience are discussed for both sport researchers and sport communication practitioners.

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Graham J. Mytton, David T. Archer, Kevin G. Thompson, Andrew Renfree and Alan St Clair Gibson

The collection of retrospective lap times from video footage is a potentially useful research tool to analyze the pacing strategies in any number of competitive events. The aim of this study was to validate a novel method of obtaining running split-time data from publically available video footage. Videos of the 1500-m men’s final from the 2004 and 2008 Olympics, 2005 and 2009 World Championships, and 2010 European Championships were obtained from the YouTube Web site, and split times were collected from all competitors using frame-by-frame playback. The typical error of video split times ranged between 0.02 s and 0.11 s for the 4 laps when compared with official split times. Video finishing times were also similar to official finishing times (typical error of 0.04 s). The method was shown to be highly reliable with a typical error of 0.02 s when the same video was analyzed on 2 occasions separated by 8 mo. Video data of track races are widely available; however, camera angles are not always perpendicular to the start/finish line, and some slower athletes may cross the line after the camera has panned away. Nevertheless, the typical errors reported here show that when appropriate camera angles are available this method is both valid and reliable.

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Maurice R. Yeadon

At the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympics, six triple somersaults with three twists or four twists were filmed using two cameras. Angles describing body configuration and orientation were determined and were used as input into a computer simulation model of aerial movement. It was found that the twist angle of each simulation deviated from the corresponding angle obtained from film by less than 0.08 revolutions during the first somersault of each movement. Contributions to the tilt angle after one somersault were determined using simulations based on modifications of the film data. It was found that of the six competitors, two initiated the twist during the takeoff phase, two initiated the twist during the aerial phase, and two used a combination of both methods.

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Mark Ludwig and Christoph Bertling

Though visual features such as slow motion, camera angle, or the cutting rate are considered to have great importance for professional media presentation of sports broadcasts and their influence on viewers, there has as yet been little research on the effects of fundamental visual parameters on viewer perception in the field of sport communication. In its primary step, this study researches the effect cutting rates have on the liking of live soccer broadcasts. To this end, an experiment (between-subjects design) with three groups (N = 92) was conducted. All participants received an identical excerpt of a soccer match; however, the number of cuts was systematically altered. A MANCOVA revealed significant effects—for example, a lower cutting rate leads the consumer to perceive less aesthetic appeal and the influences of effects are moderated by fandom. Implications are discussed.

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María Inés Táboas-Pais and Ana Rey-Cao

The aim of this paper is to show how images of disability are portrayed in physical education textbooks for secondary schools in Spain. The sample was composed of 3,316 images published in 36 textbooks by 10 publishing houses. A content analysis was carried out using a coding scheme based on categories employed in other similar studies and adapted to the requirements of this study with additional categories. The variables were camera angle, gender, type of physical activity, field of practice, space, and level. Univariate and bivariate descriptive analyses were also carried out. The Pearson chi-square statistic was used to identify associations between the variables. Results showed a noticeable imbalance between people with disabilities and people without disabilities, and women with disabilities were less frequently represented than men with disabilities. People with disabilities were depicted as participating in a very limited variety of segregated, competitive, and elite sports activities.

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Fred Mason and Geneviève Rail

Newspaper photographs of athletes at the 1999 Pan-American Games from five Canadian newspapers were analyzed for sexual differences in amount and content. Improvements in media coverage were noted over earlier studies. The percentage of photographs of women athletes was very close to that of men, and bettered their participation rate. There was also little difference in the camera angles used or in the activity level of the athletes pictured. However, sexual differences were still created in very subtle ways. Photographs of men were more likely to appear in prominent locations in the newspaper. Women in some stereotypically “male-appropriate” sports received coverage that brought them back into line with feminine ideals and mitigated their “gender transgressions.” Results suggest that women in the sports media are receiving greater amount of coverage, but the media still maintains practices that subtly create and naturalize sexual differences and set particular sports off as appropriate only for men.

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Nick Trujillo

This paper examines how images of the male body are reproduced in media coverage of professional football. Specifically, it examines television coverage of football games broadcast during the 1993–1994 season on ABC’s Monday Night Football, paying special attention to the discourse of sportscasters Al Michaels, Frank Gifford, and Dan Dierdorf and to the production techniques (eg., camera angles, slow-motion replays, etc.) of the program. Guided by a critical orientation, the paper examines how three patriarchal images of the male body and football, and the resulting paradoxes, are reproduced on Monday Night Football, including (a) the body as tool: football as work, (b) the body as weapon: football as war, and (c) the body as object of gaze: (watching) football as pleasure.

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Margaret Carlisle Duncan

This paper develops a theoretical framework for understanding how and what sports photographs mean. In particular, it identifies two categories of photographic features as conveyors of meanings. The first category is the content or discourse within the photograph, which includes physical appearances, poses and body positions, facial expressions, emotional displays, and camera angles. The second category is the context, which contributes to the discursive text of the photograph. The context includes the visual space in which the photograph appears, its caption, the surrounding written text, and the title and the substantive nature of the article in which the photograph appears. Using 1984 and 1988 Olympic Games photographs appearing in popular North American magazines, I show how these various features of photographs may enable patriarchal readings that emphasize sexual difference.

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Matthew Zimmerman and Lauren Burch

Internet added to the overall fandom experience for soccer? Bennett : I’ve always said that baseball’s Golden Age was in the era of radio. The NFL took off in the televisual era, because it’s a perfect television sport. Camera angles, 28 different cameras, stop-start, cut to commercial. And soccer, global

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Wesley O’Brien, Michael J. Duncan, Orlagh Farmer and Diarmuid Lester

, 2016b ). Video cameras (3 × Canon type Legria FS21 cameras; Canon Inc., Tokyo, Japan and 2 × Apple iPads) were used to record each participant’s performance and execution of the required skill. The distance and camera angles were at all times consistent; specifically, to ensure that the complete body