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Stephen Macdonald and Justine Allen

& Hanrahan, 2004 ; Morgan, 2017 ; Vella & Perlman, 2014 ) have brought together multiple theories to understand the coach-created environment. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to adopt a multidimensional view to examine the coach-created talent development motivational climate in Canoe

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Myriam Paquette, François Bieuzen and François Billaut

In sprint canoe–kayak, Olympic individual events are 200 and 500 m (∼38 to ∼120 s) for women and 200 and 1000 m (∼34 to ∼220 s) for men. Using the accumulated oxygen deficit method, aerobic contribution in highly trained to international-level canoe–kayak athletes has been estimated to be ∼37%, ∼64

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Homero Gustavo Ferrari, Leonardo H.D. Messias, Ivan G.M. Reis, Claudio A. Gobatto, Filipe A.B. Sousa, Camila C.S. Serra and Fúlvia B. Manchado-Gobatto

Background:

Among other aspects, aerobic fitness is indispensable for performance in slalom canoe.

Purpose:

To propose the maximal-lactate steady-state (MLSS) and critical-force (CF) tests using a tethered canoe system as new strategies for aerobic evaluation in elite slalom kayakers. In addition, the relationship between the aerobic parameters from these tests and the kayakers’ performances was studied.

Methods:

Twelve male elite slalom kayakers from the Brazilian national team participated in this study. All tests were conducted using a tethered canoe system to obtain the force records. The CF test was applied on 4 d and analyzed by hyperbolic (CFhyper) and linear (CFlin) mathematical models. The MLSS intensity (MLSSint) was obtained by three 30-min continuous tests. The time of a simulated race was considered the performance index.

Results:

No difference (P < .05) between CFhyper (65.9 ± 1.6 N) and MLSSint (60.3 ± 2.5 N) was observed; however, CFlin (71.1 ± 1.7 N) was higher than MLSSint. An inverse and significant correlation was obtained between MLSSint and performance (r = –.67, P < .05).

Conclusion:

In summary, MLSS and CF tests on a tethered canoe system may be used for aerobic assessment of elite slalom kayakers. In addition, CFhyper may be used as an alternative low-cost and noninvasive method to estimate MLSSint, which is related with slalom kayakers’ performance.

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Andrew P. Hill, Howard K. Hall, Paul R. Appleton and Jemma J. Murray

Recent research suggests that validation-seeking and dimensions of perfectionism may be antecedents of athlete burnout. The present investigation examined whether validation and growth-seeking mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. One-hundred and fifty canoe polo and kayak slalom athletes recruited from the top two divisions in the UK completed measures of validation and growth-seeking (GOI), perfectionism (HMPS), and athlete burnout (ABQ). Analyses supported the mediating role of validation-seeking in the relationship between socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. However, while bivariate correlations indicated that self-oriented perfectionism was positively related to both validation and growth-seeking, neither mediated the self-oriented perfectionism-burnout relationship. The findings suggest that validation-seeking may be an important psychological factor in the development of burnout for athletes exhibiting high levels of socially prescribed perfectionism. The relationship between self-oriented perfectionism and athlete burnout remains unclear because of its association with multiple motives and with socially prescribed perfectionism.

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Anna Bjerkefors, Johanna S. Rosén, Olga Tarassova and Anton Arndt

least 1 year. All para-kayak athletes were classified by international classifier teams from the International Canoe Federation. In total, 12 para-athletes were classified as KL1 (impairment type: impaired muscle power n = 12; health condition: spinal cord injury n = 12), 11 as KL2 (impairment types

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Pablo M. García-Rovés, Serafina Fernández, Manuel Rodríguez, Javier Pérez-Landaluce and Angeles M. Patterson

The aim of this study is to accurately describe the eating pattern and nutritional status of international elite flatwater paddlers during 1 week of a high volume training camp. Ten male and 5 female international elite flatwater paddlers were recruited to take part in this study. These athletes were all members of the Spanish National Team. To assess the intake of energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients, we used the weighed food intake method carried out by an observer. Biochemical and hematological profiles were also obtained. Average daily energy intake in male and female flatwater paddlers was 21.5 ± 2.3 and 16.5 ± 1.7 MJ, respectively. Furthermore, the male athletes showed average carbohydrate and protein intakes of 7.5 ±0.8 and 2.2 ±0.3 g ·kg·1 body weight - day ’, respectively. Similar intakes were found in female paddlers. carbohydrate 7.3 ± 1.1 and protein 2.0±0.3g·kg·1 body weight·day·1. Daily relative contribution to energy from fat was higher than recommended for sports practitioners or sedentary people (< 30 % of daily energy) in both genders (39.1 ± 2.1 and 40.2± 2.9% for men and women, respectively). Nevertheless, this diet with a high fat content (rich in monounsaturated fatty acids) did not seem to influence the paddlers’ blood lipid profile that presented low values for total cholesterol and tryglicerides and high values for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol). Flatwater paddlers’ micronutrient intake was higher than Recommended Dietary Allowances/Dietary Reference Intake (RDA/DRIs), except for folate that is close to DRI values. Further studies are required in order to understand whether this level of fat intake could impair highly trained athletes’ performance and health.

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Andrew C. Sparkes and Sarah Partington

Narrative practice is an approach that enables researchers to alternately focus on the whats and hows of meaningful social interaction. The potential benefits of utilizing this approach in sport psychology are highlighted by focusing on the area of flow as an exemplar. It is suggested that the majority of work on flow has focused on the whats rather than on the equally important hows of this phenomenon. To illustrate the ways in which a concern for the hows of narrative practice can provide different insights into flow, data are provided from an interview-based study of a white water canoeing club. The findings suggest that describing flow is a relational performance, which is shaped by a number of narrative resources and auspices that operate differently according to gender.

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Darrell L. Bonetti and Will G. Hopkins

Purpose:

To estimate variability in performance time and smallest worthwhile changes for elite fat-water canoeists competing in 200-, 500- or 1000-m events at international regattas.

Methods:

The data came from A and B finals held at 7 to 13 regattas in 2003 to 2007. A linear mixed-model analysis of log-transformed official race times provided estimates of variability as coefficients of variation and included terms to account for changes in performance between years, venues, and A and B finals.

Results:

For men, the within-athlete variation in A finals was similar in canoeing and kayaking events, with the 200-m men’s events demonstrating probably less variability than the longer events (by an overall factor of 0.75, ×/÷1.33) that may reflect differences in pacing strategies. In contrast, the within-athlete variation for women kayakers in A finals of the 500-m event was only half that of the other distances (ratio 0.54, ×/÷1.29), possibly because of differences in competitive experience or depth of competition. Predictability of performance in A finals was moderate to very high (interclass correlations 0.40 to 0.89). Within-athlete variation in the B finals was generally greater than in the A finals for the three distances for men, but there was no clear pattern for women.

Conclusion:

The smallest worthwhile changes in performance time (0.3× within-athlete variability) in canoeing and kayaking are approx. 0.3% to 0.6%. Effects of 1% to 2% in power output would be required to achieve such changes in this generally highly predictable sport.

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Lisa McDermott

This paper builds upon an earlier exploratory discussion about the term physicality that called for conceptual clarity regarding our theoretical understanding and use of it within the context of women’s lives. In light of fieldwork conducted, physicality is suggested to be the complex interplay of body perception, agency, and self-perception. This article focuses on examining one feature of this construct by assessing the relevance of body perception to two groups of women’s experiences of their physicalities through two differently gendered activities: aerobics and wilderness canoe-tripping. Pivotal to this has been qualitatively understanding the lived-body as experienced and understood by the women. In-depth interviews and participant observation were used to explore the meaning and significance these women derived from experiencing their bodies/themselves through these activities. Of specific interest was understanding the effects of these experiences in terms of shaping their understandings of their physicalities particularly beyond that of appearance. Central to this has been apprehending the physically and socially empowering effects of these experiences, especially at the level of their identity. Through the data analysis, body perception was found to be relevant to the women’s physical activity involvement in two distinct ways: as a factor initiating activity involvement and as a perception emerging through the experience. In turn, these differing perceptions of the body were found to impact diversely upon their physicalities, either broadening them or contributing to alternative ways of understanding them.