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Markus Gerber, Christin Lang, Johanna Beckmann, Jan Degen, Rosa du Randt, Stefanie Gall, Kurt Z. Long, Ivan Müller, Madeleine Nienaber, Peter Steinmann, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Siphesihle Nqweniso, and Cheryl Walter

children to school. 29 This notion seems in line with an international study comparing adult black populations from 5 different sites. 30 This study showed that in the United States, Seychelles, Jamaica, and Ghana, car ownership was associated with lower PA. However, although this relationship was not

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Ugo Lachapelle


Previous research has shown that public transit use may be associated with active transportation. Access to a car may influence active transportation of transit riders.


Using the 2009 United States National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), transit users ≥ 16 years old (n = 25,550) were categorized according to driver status and number of cars and drivers in the household. This typology ranged from choice transit riders (ie, “fully motorized drivers”) to transit-dependent riders (ie, “unmotorized nondriver”). Transit trips, walking trips, and bicycling trips of transit users are estimated in negative binomial models against the car availability typology.


Sixteen percent of participants took transit in the past month; most (86%) lived in car-owning households. As income increased, car availability also increased. Transit user groups with lower car availability were generally more likely than fully motorized drivers to take more public transit, walking, and bicycle trips. Transit riders have varying levels of vehicle access; their use of combinations of alternative modes of transportation fluctuates accordingly. Transit-dependent individuals without cars or sharing cars used active transportation more frequently than car owners.


Policies to reduce vehicle ownership in households may enable increases in the use of alternative modes of transportation for transit users, even when cars are still owned.

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Ding Ding, James F. Sallis, Gregory J. Norman, Lawrence D. Frank, Brian E. Saelens, Jacqueline Kerr, Terry L. Conway, Kelli Cain, Melbourne F. Hovell, C. Richard Hofstetter, and Abby C. King

Some attributes of neighborhood environments are associated with physical activity among older adults. This study examined whether the associations were moderated by driving status. Older adults from neighborhoods differing in walkability and income completed written surveys and wore accelerometers (N = 880, mean age = 75 years, 56% women). Neighborhood environments were measured by geographic information systems and validated questionnaires. Driving status was defined on the basis of a driver’s license, car ownership, and feeling comfortable to drive. Outcome variables included accelerometer-based physical activity and self-reported transport and leisure walking. Multilevel generalized linear regression was used. There was no significant Neighborhood Attribute × Driving Status interaction with objective physical activity or reported transport walking. For leisure walking, almost all environmental attributes were positive and significant among driving older adults but not among nondriving older adults (five significant interactions at p < .05). The findings suggest that driving status is likely to moderate the association between neighborhood environments and older adults’ leisure walking.

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Rachel Cole, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Alison Carver, Neville Owen, and Takemi Sugiyama

household, employment status, and car ownership, rather than age ( Forsyth, Oakes, Lee, & Schmitz, 2009 ; Humpel et al., 2004 ; Owen et al., 2007 ). No previous study has examined directly the moderating effects of age on the associations of objectively measured built environment attributes with walking

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Ernest Boakye-Dankwa, Anthony Barnett, Nancy A. Pachana, Gavin Turrell, and Ester Cerin

of Hong Kong, 2015 ). However, the two cities vary considerably in population density and car ownership. Population density and car ownership have been found to influence physical activity ( Cerin et al., 2014 , 2017 ; Sallis et al., 2016 ). The average population density in Brisbane is 150 people

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Tiago V. Barreira, Stephanie T. Broyles, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Mikael Fogelholm, Gang Hu, Rebecca Kuriyan, Estelle V. Lambert, Carol A. Maher, José A. Maia, Timothy Olds, Vincent Onywera, Olga L. Sarmiento, Martyn Standage, Mark S. Tremblay, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, and for the ISCOLE Research Group

, in the individual countries, different aspects of SES were significantly related to MVPA levels, making it challenging to generalize. However, in the same study, 11 the only factor that produced a similar influence across all 5 countries was car ownership, where adult car owners were less active

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Ransimala Nayakarathna, Nimesh B. Patel, Cheryl Currie, Guy Faulkner, Negin A. Riazi, Mark S. Tremblay, François Trudeau, and Richard Larouche

work (yes) 20 (8.8) 10 (4.0) .051  Parent—drives to work (yes) 128 (56.4) 157 (63.3) .149  Parent—public transit to work (yes) 46 (20.3) 54 (21.8) .771  Homeownership (yes) 130 (57.8) 139 (55.8) .737  Car ownership (1 or more vs 0) 196 (95.6) 216 (93.5) .453  Parent education ≤high school 10 (4.4) 18

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Andrew F. Clark, Joannah Campbell, Patricia Tucker, Piotr Wilk, and Jason A. Gilliland

the ability to travel from their home or school to PA facilities to participate in the intervention. Research has shown that car ownership, public transportation, and special facility-specific transportation can all provide mobility options to allow children to access the intervention. 25 , 36 , 37

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Verity Booth, Alex Rowlands, and James Dollman

being sufficiently active for health benefits, including improvements in cardiovascular fitness, mental health, and cognitive ability ( 2 ). These figures are remarkably low and concur with the societal move toward sedentary behaviors, evidenced by an increase in car ownership ( 6 ), improvements in

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Annika Frahsa, Anna Streber, Andrea R. Wolff, and Alfred Rütten

all (.) you gotta go there by taking the bus that’s four euro gone (.) Yes (.) if you’re in a sports club I don’t know um then six, seven euros you pay as a fee and there you can do sports gymnastics.” (GI2) No car ownership Walks because has no car “Because I do not have a car and (.) I walk