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Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley, Asker Jeukendrup, James P. Morton, Trent Stellingwerff and Ronald J. Maughan

:10.14814/phy2.12803 10.14814/phy2.12803 Impey , S.G. , Hearris , M.A. , Hammond , K.M. , Bartlett , J.D. , Louis , J. , Close , G.L. , & Morton , J.P. ( 2018 ). Fuel for the work required: A theoretical framework for carbohydrate periodization and the glycogen threshold hypothesis

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Liam Anderson, Patrick Orme, Robert J. Naughton, Graeme L. Close, Jordan Milsom, David Rydings, Andy O’Boyle, Rocco Di Michele, Julien Louis, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Ryland Morgans, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

In an attempt to better identify and inform the energy requirements of elite soccer players, we quantified the energy expenditure (EE) of players from the English Premier League (n = 6) via the doubly labeled water method (DLW) over a 7-day in-season period. Energy intake (EI) was also assessed using food diaries, supported by the remote food photographic method and 24 hr recalls. The 7-day period consisted of 5 training days (TD) and 2 match days (MD). Although mean daily EI (3186 ± 367 kcals) was not different from (p > .05) daily EE (3566 ± 585 kcals), EI was greater (p < .05) on MD (3789 ± 532 kcal; 61.1 ± 11.4 kcal.kg-1 LBM) compared with TD (2956 ± 374 kcal; 45.2 ± 9.3 kcal.kg-1 LBM, respectively). Differences in EI were reflective of greater (p < .05) daily CHO intake on MD (6.4 ± 2.2 g.kg-1) compared with TD (4.2 ± 1.4 g.kg-1). Exogenous CHO intake was also different (p < .01) during training sessions (3.1 ± 4.4 g.h-1) versus matches (32.3 ± 21.9 g.h-1). In contrast, daily protein (205 ± 30 g.kg-1, p = .29) and fat intake (101 ± 20 g, p = .16) did not display any evidence of daily periodization as opposed to g.kg-1, Although players readily achieve current guidelines for daily protein and fat intake, data suggest that CHO intake on the day before and in recovery from match play was not in accordance with guidelines to promote muscle glycogen storage.

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Ryland Morgans, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

R , et al . Quantification of training load during one-, two- and three-game week schedules in professional soccer players from the English Premier League: implications for carbohydrate periodization . J Sports Sci . 2015 ; 34 ( 13 ): 1250 – 1259 . PubMed ID: 26536538 doi:10

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Ryland Morgans, Rocco Di Michele and Barry Drust

P , Di Michele R , et al . Quantification of training load in one, two and three-game week schedules in professional soccer players from the English Premier League: implications for carbohydrate periodization . J Sports Sci . 2016 ; 34 : 1250 – 1259 . PubMed doi:10

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Rachel Lohman, Amelia Carr and Dominique Condo

habitual carbohydrate intake ( Baker et al., 2014 ), effects of carbohydrate periodization and modification interventions ( Balsom et al., 1999 ), and glycogen depletion rates ( Krustrup et al., 2006 ), could provide substantial evidence for guidelines that specifically address training and game

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Liam Anderson, Graeme L. Close, Matt Konopinski, David Rydings, Jordan Milsom, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, Barry Drust and James P. Morton

expenditure of professional soccer players of the English Premier League: Evidence of carbohydrate periodization . International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 27 , 228 – 238 . PubMed ID: 28050927 doi:10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0259 10.1123/ijsnem.2016-0259 Areta , J.L. , Burke , L

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Cathal Cassidy, Kieran Collins and Marcus Shortall

of interest to disclose. References Anderson , L. , Orme , P. , Naughton , R.J. , Close , G.L. , Milsom , J. , Rydings , D. , … Morton , J.P. ( 2017 ). Energy intake and expenditure of professional soccer players of the English Premier League: Evidence of carbohydrate periodization

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Samuel G. Impey, Kelly M. Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O. Shepherd, Adam P. Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, David L. Hamilton, Graeme L. Close and James P. Morton

the work required: A theoretical framework for carbohydrate periodization and the glycogen threshold hypothesis . Sports Medicine, 48 ( 5 ), 1031 – 1048 . PubMed ID: 29453741 doi:10.1007/s40279-018-0867-7 10.1007/s40279-018-0867-7 Impey , S.G. , Smith , D. , Robinson , A.L. , Owens , D

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Alannah K. A. McKay, Ida A. Heikura, Louise M. Burke, Peter Peeling, David B. Pyne, Rachel P.L. van Swelm, Coby M. Laarakkers and Gregory R. Cox

, M.A. , Hammond , K.M. , Bartlett , J.D. , Louis , J. , Close , G.L. , & Morton , J.P. ( 2018 ). Fuel for the work required: A theoretical framework for carbohydrate periodization and the glycogen threshold hypothesis . Sports Medicine, 48 ( 5 ), 1031 – 1048 . PubMed ID: 29453741

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Trent Stellingwerff, Ingvill Måkestad Bovim and Jamie Whitfield

( 1 ), 25 – 37 . PubMed ID: 22270875 doi:10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z 10.1007/s00726-011-1200-z Impey , S.G. , Hearris , M.A. , Hammond , K.M. , Bartlett , J.D. , Louis , J. , Close , G.L. , & Morton , J.P. ( 2018 ). Fuel for the work required: A theoretical framework for carbohydrate