specifically focuses on the theory and practice of employing isotopic tracers to study carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in humans. Tracers can be considered as “labels” which are used to track the trace of interest (e.g., ingested glucose). A common tracer method employs isotopes, which are elements
Javier T. Gonzalez and Andy J. King
Tim Podlogar, Simon Cirnski, Špela Bokal, Nina Verdel, and Javier T. Gonzalez
.T. , & Betts , J.A. ( 2019 ). Dietary sugars, exercise and hepatic carbohydrate metabolism . Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 78 ( 02 ), 246 – 256 . https://doi.org/10.1017/S0029665118002604 10.1017/S0029665118002604 Gonzalez , J.T. , & Wallis , G.A. ( 2021 ). Carb-conscious: The role of
Brooke R. Stephens, Andrew S. Cole, and Anthony D. Mahon
This study examined substrate use during exercise in early-pubertal (EP), mid-pubertal (MP), late-pubertal (LP), and young-adult (YA) males. Fuel use was calculated using the RER and VO2 response during cycling exercise at 30 to 70% of VO2peak. Significant group by intensity interactions were found for lactate, RER, percent CHO, and fat use, in addition to fat and CHO oxidation rates, which suggest a maturation effect on substrate use during exercise. While significance was not achieved at all intensities, post hoc analyses revealed greater fat use, lower CHO use, and lower lactate concentrations in EP and MP compared to LP or YA. No differences were noted between EP and MP or LP and YA at any intensity, suggesting the development of an adult-like metabolic profile occurs between mid- to late-puberty and is complete by the end of puberty.
Allen C. Parcell, Melinda L. Ray, Kristine A. Moss, Timothy M. Ruden, Rick L. Sharp, and Douglas S. King
Previous investigations have reported that soluble fiber reduces the plasma glucose and insulin changes after an oral glucose load. To improve the payability of a soluble-fiber feeding, this study addressed how a combined, soluble fiber (delivered in capsule form) and a preexercise CHO feeding would affect metabolic responses during exercise. On 3 different days, participants ingested a placebo (CON), 75 g liquid CHO (GLU), or 75 g liquid CHO with 14.5 g encapsulated guar gum (FIB) 45 min before cycling for 60 min at 70% VO2peak. Peak concentrations of plasma glucose and insulin were similar and significantly greater than CON preexercise (p < .05). Similarities in carbohydrate reliance were observed in GLU and FIB. Muscle glycogen use did not differ significantly among trials. These results demonstrate that encapsulated soluble fiber delivered with a liquid CHO feeding does not affect plasma glucose, insulin, or muscle glycogen utilization during exercise.
Ben B. Yaspelkis III and John L. lvy
The effect of a carbohydrate-arginine supplement on postexercise muscle glycogen storage was investigated. Twelve well-trained cyclists rode for 2 hr on two separate occasions to deplete theirmuscle glycogen stores. At 0, l, 2, and 3 hr after each exercise bout, the subjects ingested either a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement (1 g carbohydrate/kg body weight) or a carbohydrate-arginine (CHO/AA) supplement (1 g carbohydrate/kg body mass and 0.08 g arginine-hydrochloride/kg body weight). No difference in rate of glycogen storage was found between the CHO/AA and CHO treatments, although significance was approached. There were also no differences in plasma glucose, insulin, or blood lactate responses between treatments. Postexercise carbohydrate oxidation during the CHO/AA treatment was significantly reduced compared to the CHO treatment. These results suggest that the addition of arginine to a CHO supplement reduces the rate of CHO oxidation postexercise and therefore may increase the availability of glucose for muscle glycogen storage during recovery.
Rachel B. Parks, Hector F. Angus, Douglas S. King, and Rick L. Sharp
Amylomaize-7 is classified as a resistant corn starch and is 68% digestible. When modified by partial hydrolysis in ethanol and hydrochloric acid its digestibility is 92%, yet retains its low glycemic and insulinemic properties. The purpose of this study was to characterize the metabolic response when modified amylomaize-7 or dextrose is consumed in the hour before exercise, and to compare the effect on performance of a brief high-intensity cycling trial. Ten male, trained cyclists were given 1 g/kg body mass of dextrose (DEX) or modified amylomaize-7 (AMY-7) or a flavored water placebo (PL) 45 min prior to exercise on a cycle ergometer. A 15-min ride at 60% Wmax was immediately followed by a self-paced time trial (TT) equivalent to 15 min at 80% Wmax. When cyclists consumed DEX, mean serum glucose concentration increased by 3.3 ± 2.1 mmol/L before exercise, compared to stable serum glucose observed for AMY-7 or PL. Glucose concentrations returned to baseline by pre-TT in all treatments. However, the mean post-TT glucose concentration of the DEX group was significantly lower than baseline, AMY-7, or PL. Serum insulin concentration increased nine-fold from baseline to preexercise in the DEX trial, whereas PL or AMY-7 remained unchanged. Time required to complete the performance trial was not significantly different between DEX, AMY-7 or PL. Preexercise ingestion of modified amylomaize-7 compared to dextrose resulted in a more stable serum glucose concentration, but did not offer a performance advantage in this high-intensity cycling trial.
Neil M. Johannsen and Rick L. Sharp
The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in substrate oxidation between dextrose (DEX) and unmodified (UAMS) and acid/alcohol-modified (MAMS) cornstarches. Seven endurance-trained men (VO2peak = 59.1 ± 5.4 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in 2 h of exercise (66.4% ± 3.3% VO2peak) 30 min after ingesting 1 g/kg body weight of the experimental carbohydrate or placebo (PLA). Plasma glucose and insulin were elevated after DEX (P < 0.05) compared with UAMS, MAMS, and PLA. Although MAMS and DEX raised carbohydrate oxidation rate through 90 min of exercise, only MAMS persisted throughout 120 min (P < 0.05 compared with all trials). Exogenous-carbohydrate oxidation rate was higher in DEX than in MAMS and UAMS until 90 min of exercise. Acid/alcohol modification resulted in augmented carbohydrate oxidation with a small, sustained increase in exogenous-carbohydrate oxidation rate. MAMS appears to be metabolizable and available for oxidation during exercise.
Kelsey H. Fisher-Wellman and Richard J. Bloomer
Carbohydrate powder in the form of maltodextrin is widely used by athletes for postexercise glycogen resynthesis. There is some concern that such a practice may be associated with a postprandial rise in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and subsequent oxidation of macromolecules. This is largely supported by findings of increased oxidative-stress biomarkers and associated endothelial dysfunction after intake of dextrose.
To compare the effects of isocaloric dextrose and maltodextrin meals on blood glucose, triglycerides (TAG), and oxidative-stress biomarkers in a sample of young healthy men.
10 men consumed isocaloric dextrose and maltodextrin powder drinks (2.25 g/kg) in a random-order, crossover design. Blood samples were collected premeal (fasting) and at 1, 2, 4, and 6 hr postmeal and assayed for glucose, TAG, malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, nitrate/nitrite, and Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity.
Significant meal effects were noted for glucose total area under the curve (p = .004), with values higher for the dextrose meal. No other statistically significant meal effects were noted (p > .05). With respect to the 2 (meal) × 5 (time) ANOVA, no significant interaction, time, or meal effects were noted for any variable (p > .05), with the exception of glucose, for which a main effect for both meal (p < .0001) and time (p = .0002) was noted.
These data indicate that carbohydrate meals, consumed as either dextrose or maltodextrin, pose little postprandial oxidative insult to young, healthy men. As such, there should be minimal concern over such feedings, even at high dosages, assuming adequate glucose metabolism.
Joanne L. Fallowfield and Clyde Williams
The influence of increased carbohydrate intake on endurance capacity was investigated following a bout of prolonged exercise and 22.5 hrs of recovery. Sixteen male subjects were divided into two matched groups, which were then randomly assigned to either a control (C) or a carbohydrate (CHO) condition. Both groups ran at 70% VO2max on a level treadmill for 90 min or until volitional fatigue, whichever came first (T1), and 22.5 hours later they ran at the same % VO2max for as long as possible to assess endurance capacity (T2). During the recovery, the carbohydrate intake of the CHO group was increased from 5.8 (±0.5) to 8.8 (±0.1) g kg-1 BW. This was achieved by supplementing their normal diet with a 16.5% glucose-polymer solution. An isocaloric diet was prescribed for the C group, in which additional energy was provided in the form of fat and protein. Run times over T1 did not differ between the groups. However, over T2 the run time of the C group was reduced by 15.57 min (p<0.05), whereas those in the CHO group were able to match their T1 performance. Blood glucose remained stable throughout Tl and T2 in both groups. In contrast, blood lactate, plasma FFA, glycerol, ammonia, and urea increased. Thus, a high carbohydrate diet restored endurance capacity within 22.5 hrs whereas an isocaloric diet without additional carbohydrate did not.
Ralph Beneke and Renate M. Leithäuser
The maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) depicts the highest blood lactate concentration (BLC) that can be maintained over time without a continual accumulation at constant prolonged workload. In cycling, no difference in the MLSS was combined with lower power output related to peak workload (IMLSS) at 100 than at 50 rpm. MLSS coincides with a respiratory exchange ratio (RER) close to 1. Recently, at incremental exercise, an RER of 1 was found at similar workload and similar intensity but higher BLC at 100 than at 50 rpm. Therefore, the authors reassessed a potential effect of cycling cadences on the MLSS and tested the hypothesis that the MLSS would be higher at 105 than at 60 rpm with no difference in IMLSS in a between-subjects design (n = 16, age 25.1 ± 1.9 y, height 178.4 ± 6.5 cm, body mass 70.3 ± 6.5 kg vs n = 16, 23.6 ± 3.0 y, 181.4 ± 5.6 cm, 72.5 ± 6.2 kg; study I) and confirmed these findings in a within-subject design (n = 12, 25.3 ± 2.1 y, 175.9 ± 7.7 cm, 67.8 ± 8.9 kg; study II). In study I, the MLSS was lower at 60 than at 105 rpm (4.3 ± 0.7 vs 5.4 ± 1.0 mmol/L; P = .003) with no difference in IMLSS (68.7% ± 5.3% vs 71.8% ± 5.9%). Study II confirmed these findings on MLSS (3.4 ± 0.8 vs 4.5 ± 1.0 mmol/L; P = .001) and IMLSS (65.0% ± 6.8% vs 63.5% ± 6.3%; P = .421). The higher MLSS at 105 than at 60 rpm combined with an invariance of IMLSS and RER close to 1 at MLSS supports the hypothesis that higher cadences can induce a preservation of carbohydrates at given BLC levels during low-intensity, high-volume training sessions.