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Mixed Carbohydrate Supplementation Increases Carbohydrate Oxidation and Endurance Exercise Performance and Attenuates Potassium Accumulation

Mark A. Tarnopolsky, Kerry Dyson, Stephanie A. Atkinson, Duncan MacDougall, and Cynthia Cupido

We studied the effects of different CHO supplements on exercise metabolism (1 hr at 75% V ˙ O 2 ) and performance (fatigue time at 85% V ˙ O 2 ) in 8 male endurance athletes ( V O 2 max = 68.8 ± 3.8  ml kg 1 min 1 ) Four treatments were administered in a randomized, double-blind fashion: Trial A = 3-day pretest, postexercise supplementation (177 kcal [81% carbohydrate, 19% protein] consumed < 10 min after exercise) + 600 ml 8% glucose polymers/ fructose 1 hr pretesting + 600 ml 8% glucose polymers/glucose during testing; Trial B = placebo during 3-day pretest + remainder same as Trial A; Trial C = placebo at all time points; and Trial D = same as Trial B with 8% glucose 1 hr before the test as well as during the test. Time to fatigue at 85% V ˙ O 2 max (Í24%) and total CHO oxidation were greater for A versus C (p < .05). Plasma glucose concentration was higher for A and B versus C, while increases in plasma potassium concentration were attenuated for A versus C (both p < .05). None of the supplements had differential effects upon hematocrit, plasma sodium [Na+] and lactate, V ˙ O 2 , or rating of perceived exertion during exercise. Three-day preexercise protein + carbohydrate supplements followed by 1-hr pre- and during-exercise mixed carbohydrate supplements increased time to fatigue and carbohydrate oxidation and attenuated rises in plasma [K+] com pared to placebo.

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No Effect of Pre-exercise Meal on Substrate Metabolism and Time Trial Performance during Intense Endurance Exercise

David Paul, Kevin A. Jacobs, Raymond J. Geor, and Kenneth W. Hinchcliff

To determine the effect of macronutrient composition of pre-exercise meals on exercise metabolism and performance, 8 trained men exercised for 30 min above lactate threshold (30LT), followed by a 20-km time trial (TT). Approximately 3.5 h before exercise, subjects consumed a carbohydrate meal (C; 3 g carbohydrate/kg), an isoenergetic fat meal (F; 1.3 g fat/kg), or a placebo meal (P; no energy content) on 3 separate occasions in randomized order. Treatments had no effect on carbohydrate oxidation during exercise, but C decreased whole-body fat oxidation during the last 5 min of 30LT and TT, respectively (3.2 ± 1.6 and 4.8 ± 2.1 mmol · kg−1 · min−1, p < .05) when compared to F (13.3 ± 1.6 and 16.5 ± 2.7 mmol · kg−1 · min−1) and P (15.9 ± 2.7 and 17.0 ± 3.2 mmol · kg−1 · min−1). Glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd), and muscle glycogen utilization were not significantly different among treatments during exercise. TT performances were similar for C, F, and P (32.7 ± 0.5 vs. 33.1 ± 1.1 and 33.0 ± 0.8 min, p > .05). We conclude that the consumption of a pre-exercise meal has minor effects on fat oxidation during high-intensity exercise, and no effect on carbohydrate oxidation or TT performance.

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Effect of Carbohydrate Ingestion Subsequent to Carbohydrate Supercompensation on Endurance Performance

Jie Kang, Robert J. Robertson, Bart G. Denys, Sergio G. DaSilva, Paul Visich, Richard R. Suminski, Alan C. Utter, Fredric L. Goss, and Kenneth F. Metz

This investigation determined whether carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise enhanced endurance performance when the exercise was preceded by carbohydrate supercompensation. Seven male trained cyclists performed two trials at an initial power output corresponding to 71 ± 1 % of their peak oxygen consumption. During the trials, subjects ingested either a 6% glucose/sucrose (C) solution or an equal volume of artificially flavored and sweetened placebo (P) every 20 min throughout exercise. Both C and P were preceded by a 6-day carbohydrate supercompensation procedure in which subjects undertook a depletion-taper exercise sequence in conjunction with a moderate- and high-carbohydrate diet regimen. Statistical analysis of time to exhaustion, plasma glucose concentration, carbohydrate oxidation rate, fat oxidation rate, and plasma glycerol concentration indicated that in spite of a carbohydrate supercompensation procedure administered prior to exercise, carbohydrate ingestion during exercise can exert an additional ergogenic effect by preventing a decline in blood glucose levels and maintaining carbohydrate oxidation during the later stages of moderate-intensity exercise.

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Higher Fat Oxidation in Running Than Cycling at the Same Exercise Intensities

Benoit Capostagno and Andrew Bosch

This study examined the differences in fat and carbohydrate oxidation during running and cycling at the same relative exercise intensities, with intensity determined in a number of ways. Specifically, exercise intensity was expressed as a percentage of maximum workload (WLmax), maximum oxygen uptake (%VO2max), and maximum heart rate (%HRmax) and as rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Ten male triathletes performed maximal running and cycling trials and subsequently exercised at 60%, 65%, 70%, 75%, and 80% of their WLmax. VO2, HR, RPE, and plasma lactate concentrations were measured during all submaximal trials. Fat and carbohydrate oxidation were calculated from VO2 and VCO2 data. A 2-way ANOVA for repeated measures was used to determine any statistically significant differences between exercise modes. Fat oxidation was shown to be significantly higher in running than in cycling at the same relative intensities expressed as either %WLmax or %VO2max. Neither were there any significant differences in VO2max and HRmax between the 2 exercise modes, nor in submaximal VO2 or RPE between the exercise modes at the same %WLmax. However, heart rate and plasma lactate concentrations were significantly higher when cycling at 60% and 65% and 65–80%WLmax, respectively. In conclusion, fat oxidation is significantly higher during running than during cycling at the same relative intensity expressed as either %WLmax or %VO2max.

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Effect of Carbohydrate Substrate Availability on Ratings of Perceived Exertion Druting Prolonged Running

Alan Utter, Jie Kang, David Nieman, and Bev Warren

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of carbohydrate substrate availability on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during prolonged submaximal running. Thirty marathon runners were recruited as subjects. A double-blind study design was used in which subjects performed an experimental trial that consisted of a 2.5-hr treadmill run at 75–80% V ˙ O 2 max . During the experimenal trial, the subjects in the carbohydrate feeding group ingested a 6% glucose and fructose solution at a rate of approximately 60 g · hr-1, wheras subjects in the placebo group consumed an equal volume of artificially flavored placebo. Statistical analysis of RPE, respitory exchange ratio, fat at carbohydrate oxidation rate, and blood glucose concentrations indicated that increased carbohydrate substrate availability attenuated the intensity of exertional perceptions during the later stages of prolonged running at 75–80% V ˙ O 2 max in marathon runners.

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Effects of Exercise Intensity and Altered Substrate Availability on Cardiovascular and Metabolic Responses to Exercise After Oral Carnitine Supplementation in Athletes

Elizabeth M. Broad, Ronald J. Maughan, and Stuart D.R. Galloway

The effects of 15 d of supplementation with L-carnitine L-tartrate (LC) on metabolic responses to gradedintensity exercise under conditions of altered substrate availability were examined. Fifteen endurance-trained male athletes undertook exercise trials after a 2-d high-carbohydrate diet (60% CHO, 25% fat) at baseline (D0), on Day 14 (D14), and after a single day of high fat intake (15% CHO, 70% fat) on Day 15 (D15) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, pair-matched design. Treatment consisted of 3 g LC (2 g L-carnitine/d; n = 8) or placebo (P, n = 7) for 15 d. Exercise trials consisted of 80 min of continuous cycling comprising 20-min periods at each of 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80% VO2peak. There was no significant difference between whole-body rates of CHO and fat oxidation at any workload between D0 and D14 trials for either the P or LC group. Both groups displayed increased fat and reduced carbohydrate oxidation between the D14 and D15 trials (p < .05). During the D15 trial, heart rate (p < .05 for 20%, 40%, and 60% workloads) and blood glucose concentration (p < .05 for 40% and 60% workloads) were lower during exercise in the LC group than in P. These responses suggest that LC may induce subtle changes in substrate handling in metabolically active tissues when fattyacid availability is increased, but it does not affect whole-body substrate utilization during short-duration exercise at the intensities studied.

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The Effect of a Carbohydrate-Arginine Supplement on Postexercise Carbohydrate Metabolism

Ben B. Yaspelkis III and John L. lvy

The effect of a carbohydrate-arginine supplement on postexercise muscle glycogen storage was investigated. Twelve well-trained cyclists rode for 2 hr on two separate occasions to deplete theirmuscle glycogen stores. At 0, l, 2, and 3 hr after each exercise bout, the subjects ingested either a carbohydrate (CHO) supplement (1 g carbohydrate/kg body weight) or a carbohydrate-arginine (CHO/AA) supplement (1 g carbohydrate/kg body mass and 0.08 g arginine-hydrochloride/kg body weight). No difference in rate of glycogen storage was found between the CHO/AA and CHO treatments, although significance was approached. There were also no differences in plasma glucose, insulin, or blood lactate responses between treatments. Postexercise carbohydrate oxidation during the CHO/AA treatment was significantly reduced compared to the CHO treatment. These results suggest that the addition of arginine to a CHO supplement reduces the rate of CHO oxidation postexercise and therefore may increase the availability of glucose for muscle glycogen storage during recovery.

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Effects of Four Weeks L-Carnitine L-tartrate Ingestion on Substrate Utilization during Prolonged Exercise

Elizabeth M. Broad, Ronald J. Maughan, and Stuart D.R. Galloway

In a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover design, 15 trained males undertook exercise trials during two 4 wk supplementation periods, with either 3 g L-Carnitine L-tartrate (LCLT) or 3 g placebo (P) daily. Total carbohydrate and fat oxidation during 90 min steady state cycling were not different between 0 or 4 wk within LCLT or P trials (mean ± standard deviation: carbohydrate oxidation P0 99 ± 36, P4W 111 ± 27, LCLT0 107 ± 33, LCLT4W 112 ± 32 g, respectively; fat oxidation P0 99 ± 28, P4W 92 ± 21, LCLT0 94 ± 18, LCLT4W 90 ± 22 g, respectively). Subsequent 20 km time trial duration was shorter after P (P0 31:29 ± 3:50, P4W 29:55 ± 2:58 min:s, P < 0.01), with no significant change over LCLT (LCLT0 31:46 ± 4:06, LCLT4W 31.19 ± 4.08 min:s). Four weeks LCLT supplementation had no effect on substrate utilization or endurance performance.

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Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat Metabolism during Exercise after Oral Carnitine Supplementation in Humans

Elizabeth M. Broad, Ronald J. Maughan, and Stuart D.R Galloway

Twenty nonvegetarian active males were pair-matched and randomly assigned to receive 2 g of L-carnitine L-tartrate (LC) or placebo per day for 2 wk. Participants exercised for 90 min at 70% VO2max after 2 days of a prescribed diet (M ±SD: 13.6 ± 1.6 MJ, 57% carbohydrate, 15% protein, 26% fat, 2% alcohol) before and after supplementation. Results indicated no change in carbohydrate oxidation, nitrogen excretion, branched-chain amino acid oxidation, or plasma urea during exercise between the beginning and end of supplementation in either group. After 2 wk of LC supplementation the plasma ammonia response to exercise tended to be suppressed (0 vs. 2 wk at 60 min exercise, 97 ± 26 vs. 80 ± 9, and 90 min exercise, 116 ± 47 vs. 87 ± 25 μmol/L), with no change in the placebo group. The data indicate that 2 wk of LC supplementation does not affect fat, carbohydrate, and protein contribution to metabolism during prolonged moderate-intensity cycling exercise. The tendency toward suppressed ammonia accumulation, however, indicates that oral LC supplementation might have the potential to reduce the metabolic stress of exercise or alter ammonia production or removal, which warrants further investigation.

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Body Fat Percentage and Gender: Associations with Exercise Energy Expenditure, Substrate Utilization, and Mechanical Work Efficiency

Nancy L. Keim, Amy Z. Belko, and Teresa F. Barbieri

Energy expenditure (EE) was measured at specific steady-state work rates to determine if body fat percentage or gender was associated with exercise EE, substrate oxidation, or work efficiency. Body fat percentage (leaner vs. fatter men, 9-15% vs. 20-25% fat; leaner vs. fatter women, 16-24% vs. 32-48% fat) was not related to work efficiency or submaximal EE. Fatness affected substrate oxidation in men but not in women. Compared to fatter men, leaner men had higher fat oxidation (6.7 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 2.0 mg · kg fat-free mass [ FFM ] 1 · min 1 ; p < .01) and lower carbohydrate oxidation (26.6 ± 4.2 vs. 39.3 ± 5.0 mg ⋅ kg FFM 1 min 1 ; p< .01) at 60% V ˙ O 2 max . When men and women of similar fatness and relative aerobic capacity were compared, men had higher EE measured as kilojoules per minute but similar rates of EE and substrate oxidation per kilogram of FFM at 40-60% V ˙ O 2 max . It was concluded that body FFM, not fatness, is a determinant of exercise EE, whereas fatness is associated with differences in exercise substrate oxidation in men. Along with aerobic fitness, gender and fatness should be considered in future studies of exercise substrate oxidation.