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Ian Rollo and Clyde Williams

The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CHO-E) on performance during a 1-hr treadmill run. Eight male endurance-trained runners (age 31 ± 8 yr, M ± SD) completed three 1-hr performance runs separated by 1 wk. The study used a double-blind placebo (PLA) controlled design. On 2 occasions (P1, P2) runners consumed a placebo solution, 8 ml/kg body mass (BM), 30 min before and 2 ml/kg BM at 15-min intervals throughout the 1-hr run. On a separate occasion they consumed the same quantity of a 6.4% CHO-E solution (C). Total distances covered for P1, P2, and C trials were 13,685 ± 1,116 m, 13,715 ± 1,143 m, and 14,046 ± 1,104 m, respectively. Although there was no difference between the 2 PLA trials (p > .05), the distance covered during the C trial was significantly greater than in either PLA trial (p < .05). CHO ingestion resulted in a higher blood glucose concentration only at the onset of exercise (p < .05) compared with the PLA trials. Blood lactate, respiratory-exchange ratio, and CHO oxidation were similar in all 3 trials. In conclusion, ingestion of a 6.4% CHO-E solution before and during exercise was associated with improved running performance in runners compared with the ingestion of a color- and taste-matched placebo.

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Xiaocai Shi and Dennis H. Passe

The purpose of this study is to summarize water, carbohydrate (CHO), and electrolyte absorption from carbohydrate- electrolyte (CHO-E) solutions based on all of the triple-lumen-perfusion studies in humans since the early 1960s. The current statistical analysis included 30 reports from which were obtained information on water absorption, CHO absorption, total solute absorption, CHO concentration, CHO type, osmolality, sodium concentration, and sodium absorption in the different gut segments during exercise and at rest. Mean differences were assessed using independent-samples t tests. Exploratory multiple-regression analyses were conducted to create prediction models for intestinal water absorption. The factors influencing water and solute absorption are carefully evaluated and extensively discussed. The authors suggest that in the human proximal small intestine, water absorption is related to both total solute and CHO absorption; osmolality exerts various impacts on water absorption in the different segments; the multiple types of CHO in the ingested CHO-E solutions play a critical role in stimulating CHO, sodium, total solute, and water absorption; CHO concentration is negatively related to water absorption; and exercise may result in greater water absorption than rest. A potential regression model for predicting water absorption is also proposed for future research and practical application. In conclusion, water absorption in the human small intestine is influenced by osmolality, solute absorption, and the anatomical structures of gut segments. Multiple types of CHO in a CHO-E solution facilitate water absorption by stimulating CHO and solute absorption and lowering osmolality in the intestinal lumen.

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Stephen H. Wong, Clyde Williams and Neville Adams

This randomized, double-blind study examined the effects of rehydration per se and rehydration plus carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion during recovery (REC) on subsequent endurance running capacity. Nine men ran at 70% V̇O2max on a level treadmill for 90 min (Tl) on two occasions, followed by a 4 hour REC and a further exhaustive run at the same speed (T2). During the first 3 hours of REC, subjects drank either a 6.9% CHO-electrolyte solution (CE) or a CHO- and electrolyte-free sweetened placebo (PL) every 30 min. Volumes prescribed were 200% of the fluid lost after Tl. but the actual volume of fluid ingested during the REC ranged from 113–200% and 88.5–200% of the body mass lost for the CE and PL trials (NS). However, positive fluid balance was found in both trials after REC. During T2. run time was 24.3 ± 4.4 min longer in the CE trial (69.3 ± 5.5 vs. 45.0 ± 4.2 min; p < .05). Higher blood glucose concentrations were observed throughout REC in the CE trial. These results suggest that ingesting a CHO-electrolyte solution is more effective in restoring endurance capacity compared to the same large volume of placebo, even though complete rehydration was achieved in both trials.

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Costas Chryssanthopoulos, Clyde Williams, Andrea Nowitz, Christina Kotsiopoulou and Veronica Vleck

This study examined the effects of a pre-exercise meal and a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution on endurance running capacity. Ten men performed 3 treadmill runs at 70% V̇O2max to exhaustion after consuming (a) a carbohydrate meal 3 h before exercise and a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during exercise (M+C); or (b) the carbohydrate meal 3 h before exercise and water during exercise (M+W): or (c) a liquid placebo 3 h before exercise and water during exercise (P+W). Exercise time was longer in M+C (125.1 ±5.3 min; mean±SE) and M+W (111.9 ± 5.6 min) compared with P+W (102.9 ± 7.9 min;p< .01 and p < .05, respectively), and longer in M+C compared with M+W (p < .05). Serum insulin concentration at the start of exercise and carbohydrate oxidation rates during the first hour of exercise were higher, whereas plasma FFA concentrations throughout exercise were lower in M+W and M+C than in P+W (p < .01). A carbohydrate meal before exercise at 70% V̇O2max improved endurance running capacity; however, me combination of the meal and a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution during exercise further improved endurance running capacity.

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Eva M.R. Kovacs, Regina M. Schmahl, Joan M.G. Senden and Fred Brouns

The effect of a high (H) and a low (L) rate of post-exercise fluid consumption on plasma volume and fluid balance restoration was investigated. Eight well-trained cyclists were dehydrated at 3% of body weight (BW) by cycling at 28 °C. During the recovery period, they ingested a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution in a volume equivalent to 120% of BW loss. Randomly, they ingested 60%, 40%, and 20% in the 1 st, 2nd, and 3rd hours of the recovery period, respectively (H), or 24% · h−1 during 5 hours (L). BW loss was similar for both trials and resulted in a total drink intake of 2.6 ± 0.1 kg. Urine output in H exceeded significantly that of L in the 2nd and 3rd hours. This was reversed in the 5th and 6th hours. Plasma volume and fluid balance increased more rapidly in H compared to L. After 6 hours this difference disappeared. It is concluded that H results in a faster rate of plasma volume and fluid balance restoration compared to L, despite a temporary large urine output.

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Devin G. McCarthy, Kate A. Wickham, Tyler F. Vermeulen, Danielle L. Nyman, Shane Ferth, Jamie M. Pereira, Dennis J. Larson, Jamie F. Burr and Lawrence L. Spriet

magnitude of DEH required to reduce performance was reduced when combined with heat stress. 12 In addition to maintaining hydration, consuming a carbohydrate–electrolyte solution (CES) improved performance, motor skills, and cognitive function in team sports. 13 Carbohydrate (CHO) may also improve

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Alan J. McCubbin, Anyi Zhu, Stephanie K. Gaskell and Ricardo J.S. Costa

It is commonly accepted that during endurance exercise, adequate carbohydrate availability will optimize performance and will reduce the onset of fatigue, and that the use of carbohydrate-electrolyte solutions (CES) is encouraged ( Stellingwerff & Cox, 2014 ). Current carbohydrate ingestion

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Costas Chryssanthopoulos, Clyde Williams, Wendy Wilson, Lucy Asher and Lynda Hearne

The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution, ingested during exercise, with the effects of a preexercise carbohydrate meal on endurance running performance. Ten endurance-trained males completed two 30-km treadmill runs. In one trial subjects consumed a placebo solution 4 hr before exercise and a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution immediately before exercise and every 5 km (C). In the other trial, subjects consumed a 4-hr preexercise high-carbohydrate meal and water immediately before exercise and every 5 km (M). Performance times were identical for M and C, and there was no difference in the self-selected speeds. Oxygen uptake, heart rates, perceived rate of exertion, and respiratory exchange ratios were also similar. However, blood glucose concentration was higher in C during the first 20 km of the 30-km run. In M, blood glucose concentration was maintained above 4.5 mmol · L1 throughout exercise. Thus, the two conditions produced the same 30-km treadmill running performance time.

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Oded Bar-Or and Boguslaw Wilk

This article reviews studies, mostly from the authors' laboratory, on children's sweating rates and composition, voluntary drinking patterns during prolonged exercise in the heat, taste perception of beverages, and the importance of fluid flavor and composition in preventing voluntary dehydration. Subjects were children, exposed for 90 to 180 min to intermittent bouts of cycling (45-50% maximal O2 uptake) in a climatic chamber (mostly at 35 C°, 40-50% relative humidity). There were five main findings: When given unflavored water ad libitum, children dehydrated progressively and their core temperature increased faster than in adults. When offered drinks with various flavors, children preferred grape to other flavors. When given grape-flavored water during intermittent exercise in the heat, children voluntarily drank 44.5% more than with unflavored water. When given grape-flavored carbohydrate-electrolyte solution, they voluntarily drank 91% more than with unflavored water. Finally, such consumption of carbohydrate-electrolyte solution was sufficient to prevent voluntary dehydration during 180-min intermittent exercise in the heat.

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Nicholas Gant, John B. Leiper and Clyde Williams

This study examined gastric emptying, core temperature, and sprint performance during prolonged intermittent shuttle running in 30 °C when ingesting a carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES) or favored water (FW). Nine male soccer players performed 60 min of shuttle running, ingesting fluid before exercise and every 15 min during exercise. Gastric emptying was measured using a double-sampling aspiration technique, and intestinal temperature was monitored via ingested capsules. There were no differences between trials in the total fluid volume emptied from the stomach during each exercise period (P = 0.054). The volume emptied every 15 min was 244 ± 67 mL in the CES trial and 273 ± 66 mL in the FW trial. Intestinal temperature was higher during exercise in the CES trial (P = 0.004), and cumulative sprint time was shorter (P = 0.037). Sprint performance was enhanced by the ingestion of a CES, which resulted in elevated core temperatures, and the rate of gastric emptying remained similar between solutions.