Knowledge of cardiac output changes during exercise is helpful for understanding normal exercise physiology and the effect of disease upon exercise performance. There are four noninvasive techniques applicable to measurement of cardiac output in children: Indirect Fick, acetylene rebreathing, electrical bioimpedance, and Doppler. Each technique requires substantial operator experience to obtain reliable and reproducible results.
David J. Driscoll, Bruce A. Staats, and Kenneth C. Beck
Stéphane Nottin, Agnès Vinet, Anne-Marie Lecoq, Patrick Guenon, and Philippe Obert
The aim of this study was to examine the reproducibility of cardiac output (Q) measured by Doppler echocardiography and CO2-rebreathing in prepubertal children during exercise. Fourteen healthy children (8 girls and 6 boys aged 10.9 ± 0.9 years) underwent a progressive maximum upright cycle test until exhaustion on two separate occasions (1 week apart). Q was determined successively by the two methods at rest and during the final minutes of each workload. The reproducibility of the Doppler method was higher than the reproducibility of the CO2-rebreathing method, both at rest and during exercise. Moreover, this reproducibility was lower during high intensity exercise whatever the method used. On account of its high reproducibility, Doppler echocardiography should be preferentially used to detect changes in Q as a result of an exercise training intervention in prepubertal children.
Katrina Taylor, Jeffrey Seegmiller, and Chantal A. Vella
To determine whether a decremental protocol could elicit a higher maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) than an incremental protocol in trained participants. A secondary aim was to examine whether cardiac-output (Q) and stroke-volume (SV) responses differed between decremental and incremental protocols in this sample.
Nineteen runners/triathletes were randomized to either the decremental or incremental group. All participants completed an initial incremental VO2max test on a treadmill, followed by a verification phase. The incremental group completed 2 further incremental tests. The decremental group completed a second VO2max test using the decremental protocol, based on their verification phase. The decremental group then completed a final incremental test. During each test, VO2, ventilation, and heart rate were measured, and cardiac variables were estimated with thoracic bioimpedance. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was conducted with an alpha level set at .05.
There were no significant main effects for group (P = .37) or interaction (P = .10) over time (P = .45). VO2max was similar between the incremental (57.29 ± 8.94 mL · kg–1 · min–1) and decremental (60.82 ± 8.49 mL · kg–1 · min–1) groups over time. Furthermore, Q and SV were similar between the incremental (Q 22.72 ± 5.85 L/min, SV 119.64 ± 33.02 mL/beat) and decremental groups (Q 20.36 ± 4.59 L/min, SV 109.03 ± 24.27 mL/beat) across all 3 trials.
The findings suggest that the decremental protocol does not elicit higher VO2max than an incremental protocol but may be used as an alternative protocol to measure VO2max in runners and triathletes.
Santiago Lopez, Jan G. Bourgois, Enrico Tam, Paolo Bruseghini, and Carlo Capelli
To explore the cardiovascular and metabolic responses of 9 Optimist sailors (12.7 ± 0.8 y, 153 ± 9 cm, 41 ± 6 kg, sailing career 6.2 ± 1 y, peak oxygen uptake [V̇O2peak] 50.5 ± 4.5 mL · min−1 · kg−1) during on-water upwind sailing with various wind intensities (W).
In a laboratory session, peak V̇O2, beat-by-beat cardiac output (Q̇), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (f H) were measured using a progressive cycle ramp protocol. Steady-state V̇O2, Q̇, MAP, and f H at 4 submaximal workloads were also determined. During 2 on-water upwind sailing tests (constant course and with tacks), W, Q̇, MAP, and f H were measured for 15 min. On-water V̇O2 was estimated on the basis of steady-state f H measured on water and of the individual ΔV̇O2/Δf H relationship obtained in the laboratory.
V̇O2, f H, and Q̇ expressed as percentage of the corresponding peak values were linearly related with W; exercise intensity during on-water sailing corresponded to 46–48% of V̇O2peak. MAP and total vascular peripheral resistance (TPR = MAP/Q̇) were larger (P < .005) during on-water tests (+39% and +50%, respectively) than during cycling, and they were correlated with W. These responses were responsible for larger values of the double (DP) and triple (TP) products of the heart during sailing than during cycling (P < .005) (+37% and +32%, respectively).
These data indicate that the cardiovascular system was particularly stressed during upwind sailing even though the exercise intensity of this activity was not particularly high.
Dennis-Peter Born, Billy Sperlich, and Hans-Christer Holmberg
To assess original research addressing the effect of the application of compression clothing on sport performance and recovery after exercise, a computer-based literature research was performed in July 2011 using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, and Web of Science. Studies examining the effect of compression clothing on endurance, strength and power, motor control, and physiological, psychological, and biomechanical parameters during or after exercise were included, and means and measures of variability of the outcome measures were recorded to estimate the effect size (Hedges g) and associated 95% confidence intervals for comparisons of experimental (compression) and control trials (noncompression). The characteristics of the compression clothing, participants, and study design were also extracted. The original research from peer-reviewed journals was examined using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) Scale. Results indicated small effect sizes for the application of compression clothing during exercise for shortduration sprints (10–60 m), vertical-jump height, extending time to exhaustion (such as running at VO2max or during incremental tests), and time-trial performance (3–60 min). When compression clothing was applied for recovery purposes after exercise, small to moderate effect sizes were observed in recovery of maximal strength and power, especially vertical-jump exercise; reductions in muscle swelling and perceived muscle pain; blood lactate removal; and increases in body temperature. These results suggest that the application of compression clothing may assist athletic performance and recovery in given situations with consideration of the effects magnitude and practical relevance.
Stefano Montanari, Mehmet A. Şahin, Ben J. Lee, Sam D. Blacker, and Mark E.T. Willems
During endurance exercise, the increment in oxygen consumption is predominantly dictated by the metabolic demand of skeletal muscles. Cardiac output (CO) increases to meet the oxygen demand during endurance exercise ( Hellsten & Nyberg, 2016 ). Elite athletes can sustain a high-intensity workload
Gustavo Monnerat, Alex S. Maior, Marcio Tannure, Lia K.F.C. Back, and Caleb G.M. Santos
Classical twin studies that presented heritability rates associated with performance in various sports disciplines support the value of genetics in determining the response. In addition, numerous trials involving physiological responses such as hypertrophy, energy expenditure, vasodilation, cardiac output
Sarah E. Williams, Jennifer Cumming, and George M. Balanos
The present study investigated whether imagery could manipulate athletes’ appraisal of stress-evoking situations (i.e., challenge or threat) and whether psychological and cardiovascular responses and interpretations varied according to cognitive appraisal of three imagery scripts: challenge, neutral, and threat. Twenty athletes (M age = 20.85; SD = 1.76; 10 female, 10 male) imaged each script while heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output were obtained using Doppler echocardiography. State anxiety and self-confidence were assessed following each script using the Immediate Anxiety Measures Scale. During the imagery, a significant increase in heart rate, stroke volume, and cardiac output occurred for the challenge and threat scripts (p < .05). Although there were no differences in physiological response intensities for both stress-evoking scripts, these responses, along with anxiety symptoms, were interpreted as facilitative during the challenge script and debilitative during the threat script. Results support using imagery to facilitate adaptive stress appraisal.
Stephen F. Figoni, Richard A. Boileau, Benjamin H. Massey, and Joseph R. Larsen
The purpose of this study was to compare quadriplegic and able-bodied men on selected cardiovascular and metabolic responses to arm-crank ergometry at the same rate of oxygen consumption (V̇O2). Subjects included 11 untrained, spinal cord-injured, C5–C7 complete quadriplegic men and 11 untrained, able-bodied men of similar age (27 years), height (177 cm), and mass (65 kg). Measurement techniques included open-circuit spirometry, impedance cardiography, and electrocardiography. Compared with the able-bodied group, at the V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min, the quadriplegics displayed a significantly higher mean heart rate and arteriovenous O2 difference, lower stroke volume and cardiac output, and similar myocardial contractility. These results suggest that quadriplegic men achieve an exercise-induced V̇O2 of 0.5 L/min through different central cardiovascular adjustments than do able-bodied men. Quadriplegics deliver less O2 from the heart toward the tissues but extract more O2 from the blood. Tachycardia may contribute to low cardiac preload and low stroke volume, while paradoxically tending to compensate for low stroke volume by minimizing reduction of cardiac output.
Maximiliano I. Schaun, Leonardo Lisboa Motta, Rayane Teixeira, Fábio Klamt, Juliane Rossato, Alexandre Machado Lehnen, Maria Cláudia Irigoyen, and Melissa M. Markoski
In acute myocardial infarction (AMI), reactive oxygen species may cause irreversible damage to the heart tissue. Physical training is capable of enhancing antioxidant capacity, acting as a cardioprotective factor. We assessed the preventive effects of physical training on the antioxidant and functional responses of the heart of Wistar Kyoto rats after AMI. Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 12) were allocated to sedentary (SED) or trained (EXE—aerobic training on a treadmill) groups. Echocardiographic exams were performed 48 hr before and 48 hr after the induction of AMI. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, and total glutathione (GSH) were measured in vitro in the heart tissue. After AMI, the EXE group showed higher left ventricular shortening fraction (29%; p = .004), higher cardiac output (37%; p = .032) and reduced myocardial infarction size (16%; p = .007) than SED. The EXE group showed a higher nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity (GSH, 23%; p = .004), but the SOD and CAT activities were higher in SED (23% SOD; p = .021 and 20% CAT; p = .016). In addition, the SOD activity was positively correlated with myocardial infarction size and inversely correlated with cardiac output. Physical training partially preserved cardiac function and increased intracellular antioxidant response in cardiac tissue of animals after AMI.