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Shota Tanaka, Hiroki Ueta, Ryo Sagisaka, Shuji Sakanashi, Takahiro Hara and Hideharu Tanaka

(SCA) in sports events vary from one per every 65,000 to 200,000 people. 2 – 4 The true incidence of Kendo-related SCAs is unknown, but two cases requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPRs) and one heart attack were reported from a questionnaire-based study (307 respondents). 5 According to a

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Dino G. Costanzo, David M. Rustico and Linda S. Pescatello

The preparedness of community facilities offering exercise programs to older adults is unknown. On-site evaluations were conducted by trained professionals to assess compliance of community older adult exercise programs with fitness-industry standards. Fourteen facilities were evaluated whose clientele (N = 2,172) were predominantly White (98%) women (87%) over 75 years of age (66%). Few of the 14 facilities required exercise participants to complete preactivity health questionnaires (n = 5), 3 administered informed consents, and none adhered to a medical-clearance policy. Only 2 facilities had defined emergency policies, and none conducted emergency drills. One site conducted exercise programs with instructors trained in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Professionally certified exercise instructors leading all exercise programs were observed in 1 facility. Most facilities evaluated were noncompliant with existing professional health and fitness standards. The practicality of imposing such standards on community exercise programs for older adult requires further examination.

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Jay M. Albrecht and Brad N. Strand

The inception of organized youth sport in the United States began during the mid to late 1800s. With continual growth of organized youth sport throughout the twentieth century and into the twenty-first, youth sport has not been without important, and at times, serious implications. One of the implications involves injury in youth sport and the basic need for qualified youth sport coaches to care for injury situations that might arise during the course of regular season practices and games.

One hundred fifty-four youth sport coaches from seven different youth sport organizations were surveyed to determine whether the coaches had the basic first aid (FA) and cardiopulmonary resuscitation/automated external defibrillation (CPR/AED) training to serve their young athletes in the event of an emergent or non-emergent injury or sudden illness. Additionally, coaches were asked whether they had the confidence to manage a basic emergency injury or illness situation should such an occurrence arise during the course of a sports season involving regular practices or game competition. Major findings of this study revealed that only 19% and 46% of the 154 youth sport coaches surveyed were formally trained with basic first aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation certifications, respectively. Additional findings indicated that youth sport coaches holding one or two of the suggested certifications possessed more knowledge and confidence than those youth sport coaches who did not hold certification to use that knowledge when faced with FA injury or illness situation. In consideration of these findings, recommendations should be made to encourage or mandate youth sport coaches involved with organized youth sport to become FA and CPR/AED certified.

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Bradford Strand, Shannon David, Katie J. Lyman and Jay M. Albrecht

The purpose of this original research was to survey high school coaches in four states in the Midwest region of the United States regarding their knowledge of first aid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and use of an Automated External Defibrillator (AED) as well as confidence in managing/treating emergency situations. Responses to general knowledge inquiries revealed that coaches were able to accurately answer questions related to return to play, level of consciousness, external bleeding, and cardiac arrest. However, coaches were unable to correctly answer questions specific to rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) and also misidentified information related to pediatric AED use. Because sudden cardiac death is the leading cause of death and has been linked to lack of bystander intervention, the results of this project should be considered by coaches and administrators to implement certification and continuing education for high school coaches. Finally, coaches who were certified in first aid, CPR, and AED were more confident in treating an individual who required care compared with coaches not certified. Therefore, individuals who coach at all levels of sport and recreational activities should consider formal training and certification.

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Llion A. Roberts, Johnpaul Caia, Lachlan P. James, Tannath J. Scott and Vincent G. Kelly

.00015.2007 18195089 10.1152/physrev.00015.2007 18. Liu R , Liang Z-J , Liao X-X , et al . Enhanced external counterpulsation improves cerebral blood flow following cardiopulmonary resuscitation . Am J Emerg Med . 2013 ; 31 ( 12 ): 1638 – 1645 . PubMed ID: 24060327 doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2013

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Zachary Wahl-Alexander and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith

certified to carry out cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Facilities for all the activity classes observed during the study were excellent, equipment was plentiful, and the GTAs’ class sizes ranged from 16 to 38 students. Typically, the GTAs’ classes met for 60 minutes, twice a week, for 15 weeks. Data