represent a useful indicator for the development of several other characteristics. Low levels of physical fitness and physical activity, and higher amounts of sedentary time, have also been associated with a range number of negative health outcomes. 7 , 8 Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a dimension of
José Oliveira-Santos, Rute Santos, Carla Moreira, Sandra Abreu, Luís Lopes, César Agostinis-Sobrinho and Jorge Mota
Monique Mendelson, Anne-Sophie Michallet, Julia Tonini, Anne Favre-Juvin, Michel Guinot, Bernard Wuyam and Patrice Flore
To examine the role of ventilatory constraint on cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents.
Thirty obese adolescents performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise and were divided into 2 groups based on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak): those presenting low (L; n = 15; VO2peak: 72.9 ± 8.6% predicted) or normal (N; n = 15; VO2peak: 113.6 ± 19.2% predicted) cardiorespiratory fitness. Both were compared with a group of healthy controls (C; n = 20; VO2peak: 103.1 ± 11.2% predicted). Ventilatory responses were explored using the flow volume loop method.
Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, in % predicted) was lower in L compared with C and N and was moderately associated with the percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = .52; p < .05) in L. At peak exercise, end inspiratory point was lower in L compared with N and C (77.4 ± 8.1, 86.4 ± 7.7, and 89.9 ± 7.6% FVC in L, N, and C, respectively; p < .05), suggesting an increased risk of ventilatory constraint in L, although at peak exercise this difference could be attributed to the lower maximal ventilation in L.
Forced vital capacity and ventilatory strategy to incremental exercise slightly differed between N and L. These results suggest a modest participation of ventilatory factors to exercise intolerance.
Vagner D.O. Tavares, Kell G. da Costa, Daniel A.R. Cabral, Maria L.M. Rego, Menna Price and Eduardo B. Fontes
% ( Maisto, Pollock, Cornelius, Lynch, & Martin, 2003 ). Thus, new strategies are necessary to help the treatment of individuals with SUD. Regularly performed physical exercise (defined as planned and structured activity for cardiorespiratory fitness; Caspersen, Powell, & Christenson, 1985 ) has been shown
Morgan N. Clennin and Russell R. Pate
Strong evidence suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth and is associated with cardiometabolic health in adulthood. 1 – 5 Unfortunately, cardiorespiratory fitness levels in youth have declined steadily over the past 3 decades. 2 , 6 , 7 In the United States
Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Belinda M. Brown
cardiorespiratory fitness that is the strongest protective factor. Executive Functioning, Physical Activity, and Fitness Executive functions are defined as higher level control processes that coordinate other cognitive abilities ( Miyake et al., 2000 ). Within the literature, five subdomains of executive function
S. Nicole Fearnbach, Neil M. Johannsen, Corby K. Martin, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Robbie A. Beyl, Daniel S. Hsia, Owen T. Carmichael and Amanda E. Staiano
Maintaining high cardiorespiratory fitness has been shown to be protective against the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, independent of body weight (BW [ 1 , 30 ]). In adults, high fitness is associated with reduced mortality, even when controlling for other risk factors
Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee and James R. Bagley
the best of our knowledge, no study has examined if F/B is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, as assessed by maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max), independent from dietary or anthropometric measures. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify potential relationships among relative
Leanna M. Ross, Jacob L. Barber, Alexander C. McLain, R. Glenn Weaver, Xuemei Sui, Steven N. Blair and Mark A. Sarzynski
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is well established as having a strong association with mortality and numerous CVD risk factors. 4 Despite the strong associations between CRF and each individual component of LS7, few studies have examined the independent association of CRF and ideal CVH score. Recently, Ruiz et
Sandra A. Billinger, Eric D. Vidoni, Jill K. Morris, John P. Thyfault and Jeffrey M. Burns
Positive physiologic and cognitive responses to aerobic exercise have resulted in a proposed cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness hypothesis in which fitness gains drive changes leading to cognitive benefit. The purpose of this study was to directly assess the CR fitness hypothesis. Using data from an aerobic exercise trial, we examined individuals who completed cardiopulmonary and cognitive testing at baseline and 26 weeks. Change in cognitive test performance was not related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .06, p = .06). However, in the subset of individuals who gave excellent effort during exercise testing, change in cognitive test performance was related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .33, p < .01). This was largely due to change in the cognitive domain of attention (r 2 = .36, p < .01). The magnitude of change was not explained by duration of exercise. Our findings support further investigation of the CR fitness hypothesis and mechanisms by which physiologic adaptation may drive cognitive change.
Greg Doncaster, John Iga and Viswanath Unnithan
maturation with respect to detailed measures of cardiorespiratory fitness in highly trained youth soccer players. Moreover, recent research has highlighted the importance of appropriate scaling to successfully accommodate the nonlinear relationship between body size descriptors and peak oxygen uptake (VO 2