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Monique Mendelson, Anne-Sophie Michallet, Julia Tonini, Anne Favre-Juvin, Michel Guinot, Bernard Wuyam and Patrice Flore

Aim:

To examine the role of ventilatory constraint on cardiorespiratory fitness in obese adolescents.

Methods:

Thirty obese adolescents performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise and were divided into 2 groups based on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak): those presenting low (L; n = 15; VO2peak: 72.9 ± 8.6% predicted) or normal (N; n = 15; VO2peak: 113.6 ± 19.2% predicted) cardiorespiratory fitness. Both were compared with a group of healthy controls (C; n = 20; VO2peak: 103.1 ± 11.2% predicted). Ventilatory responses were explored using the flow volume loop method.

Results:

Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, in % predicted) was lower in L compared with C and N and was moderately associated with the percent predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) (r = .52; p < .05) in L. At peak exercise, end inspiratory point was lower in L compared with N and C (77.4 ± 8.1, 86.4 ± 7.7, and 89.9 ± 7.6% FVC in L, N, and C, respectively; p < .05), suggesting an increased risk of ventilatory constraint in L, although at peak exercise this difference could be attributed to the lower maximal ventilation in L.

Conclusion:

Forced vital capacity and ventilatory strategy to incremental exercise slightly differed between N and L. These results suggest a modest participation of ventilatory factors to exercise intolerance.

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Morgan N. Clennin and Russell R. Pate

Strong evidence suggests that cardiorespiratory fitness is a powerful marker of health in youth and is associated with cardiometabolic health in adulthood. 1 – 5 Unfortunately, cardiorespiratory fitness levels in youth have declined steadily over the past 3 decades. 2 , 6 , 7 In the United States

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Natalie Frost, Michael Weinborn, Gilles E. Gignac, Shaun Markovic, Stephanie R. Rainey-Smith, Hamid R. Sohrabi, Ralph N. Martins, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Belinda M. Brown

cardiorespiratory fitness that is the strongest protective factor. Executive Functioning, Physical Activity, and Fitness Executive functions are defined as higher level control processes that coordinate other cognitive abilities ( Miyake et al., 2000 ). Within the literature, five subdomains of executive function

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Ryan P. Durk, Esperanza Castillo, Leticia Márquez-Magaña, Gregory J. Grosicki, Nicole D. Bolter, C. Matthew Lee and James R. Bagley

the best of our knowledge, no study has examined if F/B is associated with cardiorespiratory fitness, as assessed by maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max), independent from dietary or anthropometric measures. The purpose of this exploratory study was to identify potential relationships among relative

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Leanna M. Ross, Jacob L. Barber, Alexander C. McLain, R. Glenn Weaver, Xuemei Sui, Steven N. Blair and Mark A. Sarzynski

Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is well established as having a strong association with mortality and numerous CVD risk factors. 4 Despite the strong associations between CRF and each individual component of LS7, few studies have examined the independent association of CRF and ideal CVH score. Recently, Ruiz et

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Sandra A. Billinger, Eric D. Vidoni, Jill K. Morris, John P. Thyfault and Jeffrey M. Burns

Positive physiologic and cognitive responses to aerobic exercise have resulted in a proposed cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness hypothesis in which fitness gains drive changes leading to cognitive benefit. The purpose of this study was to directly assess the CR fitness hypothesis. Using data from an aerobic exercise trial, we examined individuals who completed cardiopulmonary and cognitive testing at baseline and 26 weeks. Change in cognitive test performance was not related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .06, p = .06). However, in the subset of individuals who gave excellent effort during exercise testing, change in cognitive test performance was related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .33, p < .01). This was largely due to change in the cognitive domain of attention (r 2 = .36, p < .01). The magnitude of change was not explained by duration of exercise. Our findings support further investigation of the CR fitness hypothesis and mechanisms by which physiologic adaptation may drive cognitive change.

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Greg Doncaster, John Iga and Viswanath Unnithan

maturation with respect to detailed measures of cardiorespiratory fitness in highly trained youth soccer players. Moreover, recent research has highlighted the importance of appropriate scaling to successfully accommodate the nonlinear relationship between body size descriptors and peak oxygen uptake (VO 2

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch and Steven N. Blair

conditions may have significantly reduced life expectancy. Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter referred to as fitness) are widely known to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 11 cardiovascular disease (CVD), 12 , 13 stroke, 14 cancer mortality, 15 , 16 and all

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Baruch Vainshelboim, Zhongming Chen, Ricardo M. Lima and Jonathan Myers

risk of cancer, 1 – 5 , 7 , 8 most smokers do not develop cancer and, thus, there are factors other than smoking that influence risk. 4 , 9 – 11 Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is an established risk factor for the development of many chronic conditions, and it is strongly associated with all

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Patrick B. Wilson

Background:

Psoriasis confers risk for cardiometabolic disorders. Cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with risk of cardiometabolic disorders in other populations, but limited data have been published assessing cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with psoriasis. This investigation aimed to: 1) assess cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals with psoriasis in the general population; and 2) compare levels to individuals without psoriasis.

Methods:

A secondary data analysis from the 2003–2004 National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey was performed. Cardiorespiratory fitness was assessed with a treadmill test, while measures of psoriasis severity included rating of psoriasis as a life problem and body surface area involvement.

Results:

Twenty-six of 1093 participants reported a psoriasis diagnosis (population weighted prevalence 2.9%). Individuals with psoriasis had lower cardiorespiratory fitness compared with individuals without psoriasis (36.2 vs. 39.1 mL∙kg-1∙min-1, P = .009). No differences in self-reported or accelerometer physical activity were found by psoriasis diagnosis. Cardiorespiratory fitness was not significantly lower in those reporting high life impairment or body surface area involvement.

Conclusions:

Cardiorespiratory fitness may be lower in individuals with psoriasis and these differences may not be explained by self-reported disease severity measures or physical activity. Future studies should examine whether validated measures of psoriasis severity predict lower cardiorespiratory fitness.