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Anthony D. Okely, Michael L. Booth, and John W. Patterson

This study investigated a possible relationship between cardiorespiratory endurance and fundamental movement skill proficiency among adolescents. Locomotor (run and jump) and object-control (catch, throw, kick, and strike) skills and cardiorespiratory endurance, indirectly measured using the Multistage Fitness Test (MFT) or PACER, were assessed in 2,026 boys and girls in Grade 8 (mean age = 13.3 years) and Grade 10 (mean age = 15.3 years), who were part of a randomly selected sample who agreed to participate in the New South Wales Schools Fitness and Physical Activity Survey, 1997. Boys had higher levels of cardiorespiratory endurance and were more competent than girls on 5 out of 6 skills. Grade 10 students were better on all skills and were aerobically fitter than Grade 8 students. All six skills and a skills index were related to the number of laps completed on the MFT. The six skills explained 20% and 26% of the variance in the number of laps completed on the MFT for Grade 8 and Grade 10 girls, respectively, and 12% and 17% for Grade 8 and Grade 10 boys, respectively. This finding can be interpreted as evidence of a relationship between cardiorespiratory endurance and fundamental movement skills among adolescents. Further studies are recommended to determine if improved movement skills in adolescents can promote cardiorespiratory endurance.

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You Fu, Zan Gao, James C. Hannon, Ryan D. Burns, and Timothy A. Brusseau Jr.

Background:

This study aimed to examine the effect of a 9-week SPARK program on physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory endurance (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run; PACER), and motivation in middle-school students.

Methods:

174 students attended baseline and posttests and change scores computed for each outcome. A MANOVA was employed to examine change score differences using follow-up ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests.

Results:

MANOVA yielded a significant interaction for Grade × Gender × Group (Wilks’s Λ = 0.89, P < .001). ANOVA for PA revealed significant differences between SPARK grades 6 and 7 (Mean Δ = 8.11, P < .01) and Traditional grades 6 and 8 (Mean Δ = –6.96, P < .01). ANOVA also revealed greater PACER change for Traditional boys in grade 8 (P < .01) and SPARK girls in grade 8 (P < .01). There were significant interactions with perceived competence differences between SPARK grades 6 and 8 (Mean Δ = 0.38, P < .05), Enjoyment differences between SPARK grades 6 and 7 (Mean Δ = 0.67, P < .001), and SPARK grades 6 and 8 (Mean Δ = 0.81, P < .001).

Conclusions:

Following the intervention, SPARK displayed greater increases on PA and motivation measures in younger students compared with the Traditional program.

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J. Steven Simpson and Joe W. Priest

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Stacy N. Scott, Cary M. Springer, Jennifer F. Oody, Michael S. McClanahan, Brittany D. Wiseman, Tyler J. Kybartas, and Dawn P. Coe

Previous progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER) equations were developed to estimate peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) from data collected during treadmill running. No equation has been developed using VO2peak assessed during the PACER. Purpose: To develop and validate a prediction equation to estimate VO2peak from the PACER in 10- to 15-year-olds. Methods: A sample of 163 youth were recruited to develop (n = 101) and validate (n = 62) a prediction equation. VO2peak was measured using a portable metabolic unit. Regression analysis yielded a prediction equation that included laps, body mass index, and interaction between sex and age. Correlations and repeated-measures analysis of variances were used to compare the measured and estimated VO2peak from the new Scott et al equation and 2 commonly used FitnessGram™ (Mahar et al 2011 and Mahar et al 2018) equations, and the impact of sex on predicted VO2peak. Results: Predicted VO2peak from the Mahar et al 2011 and 2018 equations was significantly lower compared with measured values, and the Scott et al prediction was not different. The Mahar et al 2018 equation tended to overestimate VO2peak in males but worked well for females. The Mahar et al 2011 and Scott et al equations revealed no sex differences. Conclusions: The Scott et al equation resulted in a more accurate estimate of VO2peak, performing equally well for both sexes.

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Jaime J. Gahche, Brian K. Kit, Janet E. Fulton, Dianna D. Carroll, and Thomas Rowland

Background:

Nationally representative normative values for cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) have not been described for US children since the mid 1980s.

Objective:

To provide sex- and age-specific normative values for CRF of US children aged 6–11 years.

Methods:

Data from 624 children aged 6–11 years who participated in the CRF testing as part of the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey National Youth Fitness Survey, a cross-sectional survey, were analyzed. Participants were assigned to one of three age-specific protocols and asked to exercise to volitional fatigue. The difficulty of the protocols increased with successive age groups. CRF was assessed as maximal endurance time (min:sec). Data analysis was conducted in 2016.

Results:

For 6–7, 8–9, 10–11 year olds, corresponding with the age-specific protocols, mean endurance time was 12:10 min:sec (95% CI: 11:49–12:31), 11:16 min:sec (95% CI: 11:00–11:31), and 10:01 min:sec (95% CI: 9:37–10:25), respectively. Youth in the lowest 20th percentile for endurance time were more likely to be obese, to report less favorable health, and to report greater than two hours of screen time per day.

Conclusions:

These data may serve as baseline estimates to monitor trends over time in CRF among US children aged 6–11 years.

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Christine Galvan, Karen Meaney, and Virginia Gray

the preservice teachers. After several meetings, the agreed upon participant goals were to (a) improve cardiorespiratory endurance, (b) complete a 5K event held at the university, and (c) improve levels of personal and social responsibility. The main goals for the preservice teachers were to (a

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You Fu and Ryan D. Burns

There is evidence suggesting that active video gaming (AVG) has the potential to improve both health behaviors (eg, physical activity) and health-related fitness (eg, body composition, cardiorespiratory endurance) in children and adolescents. 1 – 3 Mechanisms to achieve these benefits include

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Sami Yli-Piipari, Arto Gråsten, Mikko Huhtiniemi, Kasper Salin, Sanni Seppälä, Harto Hakonen, and Timo Jaakkola

( Stodden et al., 2008 ). Previous research has shown that health-related fitness components can explain from 10 to 13% of total PA among children ( Chen et al., 2018 ), with cardiorespiratory endurance being the strongest predictor, followed by upper body strength and endurance ( Chen et al., 2018

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Xiangli Gu, Senlin Chen, and Xiaoxia Zhang

by the FitnessGram testing battery ( Welk & Meredith, 2010 ) including assessments of cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular fitness (i.e., upper body strength, abdominal strength and endurance, and trunk strength), flexibility, and body composition. The progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance

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Kimberly A. Clevenger, Melitta A. McNarry, Kelly A. Mackintosh, and David Berrigan

to characterize the association of recess provision with PA, adiposity, weight status, cardiorespiratory endurance, and muscular strength and endurance. Methods The National Youth Fitness Survey (NYFS) was designed as a supplement to the 2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to better