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Serina A. Neumann, Jessica R.P. Brown, Shari R. Waldstein and Leslie I. Katzel

Silent myocardial ischemia (SI) has been linked to increased risk of future coronary events. Enhanced systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) and heart-rate (HR) reactions to stress (cardiovascular reactivity [CVR]) have been associated with greater severity of SI and are related prospectively to coronary-artery-disease endpoints. The authors examined the potential attenuating effects of 6 months of walking (aerobic exercise) versus control on CVR to three laboratory stressors in 25 older adults with exercise-induced SI. Maximal aerobic capacity was significantly improved by 12% for the exercise group and decreased by 8% for controls (p < .001). Groups had similar biomedical profiles pre- and postintervention. Walkers had significantly reduced DBP reactivity (pre, 12 ± 2; post, 4 ± 2 mm Hg) compared with controls (pre, 10 ± 2; post, 11 ± 2 mm Hg; p = .05), but no differences between groups were found for SBP or HR reactivity. These findings are the first to suggest that increased physical activity (via walking) can attenuate BP reactivity to emotional stressors in apparently healthy older adults with SI.

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Lee J. Moore, Samuel J. Vine, Mark R. Wilson and Paul Freeman

Competitive situations often hinge on one pressurized moment. In these situations, individuals’ psychophysiological states determine performance, with a challenge state associated with better performance than a threat state. But what can be done if an individual experiences a threat state? This study examined one potential solution: arousal reappraisal. Fifty participants received either arousal reappraisal or control instructions before performing a pressurized, single-trial, motor task. Although both groups initially displayed cardiovascular responses consistent with a threat state, the reappraisal group displayed a cardiovascular response more reflective of a challenge state (relatively higher cardiac output and/or lower total peripheral resistance) after the reappraisal manipulation. Furthermore, despite performing similarly at baseline, the reappraisal group outperformed the control group during the pressurized task. The results demonstrate that encouraging individuals to interpret heightened physiological arousal as a tool that can help maximize performance can result in more adaptive cardiovascular responses and motor performance under pressure.

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Kim Gammage, Rachel Arnold, Lori Dithurbide, Alison Ede, Karl Erickson, Blair Evans, Larkin Lamarche, Sean Locke, Eric Martin and Kathleen Wilson

Don’t React, Be Active: Reducing Blood Pressure Responses to Stress With Exercise Regular physical activity has been shown to lead to reductions in cardiovascular reactivity—changes in heart rate or blood pressure that occur in response to stressors. However, much of this research has been

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Timothy C. Howle, James A. Dimmock, Nikos Ntoumanis, Nikos L.D. Chatzisarantis, Cassandra Sparks and Ben Jackson

:10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00491.x 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00491.x Smith , T.W. , Gallo , L.C. , Goble , L. , Ngu , L.Q. , & Stark , K.A. ( 1998 ). Agency, communion, and cardiovascular reactivity during marital interaction . Health Psychology, 17 , 537 – 545 . PubMed doi:10

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Yongjin Hwang, Khalid Ballouli, Kevin So and Bob Heere

revenue worldwide from 2009 to 2019 (in billions U.S. dollars) . Retrieved from Tafalla , R.J. ( 2007 ). Gender differences in cardiovascular reactivity and game performance related to sensory modality in violent video

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Michael J. Panza, Scott Graupensperger, Jennifer P. Agans, Isabelle Doré, Stewart A. Vella and Michael Blair Evans

, & Vella, 2019 ). Social interactions may also generate positive and negative processes within immune, endocrine, and cardiovascular systems. As one example, social support plays a stress-buffering role by reducing cardiovascular reactivity to stress ( Uchino, 2006 ). Adolescent organized sport may thus