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Gregore I. Mielke, Jenny Doust, Hsiu-Wen Chan, and Gita D. Mishra

Resting heart rate has been shown to be inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease, including incident heart failure. 1 – 3 This makes it a potential clinical marker of cardiovascular health, which can be feasibly assessed in epidemiological studies. 4

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Andrew A. Flatt, Jeff R. Allen, Clay M. Keith, Matthew W. Martinez, and Michael R. Esco

contributory mechanism that precedes clinically relevant cardiovascular maladaptations found to occur predominantly in larger players. 1 Thus, parasympathetic hypoactivity indexed by suppressed HRV may be an easily identifiable red flag that can be used to support interventions relevant to players’ health and

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Michael D. Brown and Dulce H. Gomez

ethnicity, race, geography, education level, and socioeconomic status (SES). The overall cost of these health disparities in the United States has been estimated to be 1.24 trillion dollars ( Graham, 2015 ). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) arises from a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and

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Luca Napoli, Stuart Semple, and Andrew J. McKune

, depending on their playing level. 2 , 3 The physiological strain resulting from acute and chronic physical activity can result in an adaptive or maladaptive response within the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and nervous systems. 4 Despite the similarities between rugby codes, a higher work-to-rest ratio

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Brandon M. Kistler, Peter J. Fitschen, Sushant M. Ranadive, Bo Fernhall, and Kenneth R. Wilund

The purpose of this study was to document the physiological changes that occur in a natural bodybuilder during prolonged contest preparation for a proqualifying contest. During the 26-week preparation, the athlete undertook a calorically restrictive diet with 2 days of elevated carbohydrate intake per week, increased cardiovascular (CV) training, and attempted to maintain resistance-training load. The athlete was weighed twice a week and body composition was measured monthly by DXA. At baseline and every 2 weeks following CV structure and function was measured using a combination of ultrasound, applanation tonometry, and heart rate variability (HRV). Cardiorespiratory performance was measured by VO2peak at baseline, 13 weeks, and 26 weeks. Body weight (88.6 to 73.3 Kg, R 2 = .99) and percent body fat (17.5 to 7.4%) were reduced during preparation. CV measurements including blood pressure (128/61 to 113/54mmHg), brachial pulse wave velocity (7.9 to 5.8m/s), and measures of wave reflection all improved. Indexed cardiac output was reduced (2.5 to 1.8L/m2) primarily due to a reduction in resting heart rate (71 to 44bpm), and despite an increase in ejection faction (57.9 to 63.9%). Assessment of HRV found a shift in the ratio of low to high frequency (209.2 to 30.9%). Absolute VO2 was minimally reduced despite weight loss resulting in an increase in relative VO2 (41.9 to 47.7ml/Kg). In general, this prolonged contest preparation technique helped the athlete to improve body composition and resulted in positive CV changes, suggesting that this method of contest preparation appears to be effective in natural male bodybuilders.

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Diana Keyhani, Bakhtyar Tartibian, Arezou Dabiri, and Ana Maria Botelho Teixeira

, Mulvagh, Bairey Merz, Buring, & Manson, 2016 ). The number of women suffering from HF is predicted to increase by 46% by the end of 2030 ( Wang et al., 2018 ). Many factors have different impacts on the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in sedentary postmenopausal women (PMW), including sedentary

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Jana Slaght, Martin Sénéchal, and Danielle R. Bouchard

.1097/00005768-200111000-00005 11689731 10.1097/00005768-200111000-00005 Murphy , M.H. , Nevill , A.M. , Neville , C. , Biddle , S. , & Hardman , A.E. ( 2002 ). Accumulating brisk walking for fitness, cardiovascular risk, and psychological health . Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise , 34 ( 9 ), 1468 – 1474

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Raymond Jones, Ene M. Enogela, Taylor L. Buchanan, Thomas W. Buford, David E. Vance, and Pariya L. Fazeli

literature on PWH focuses on younger samples, 4 older people living with HIV (OPWH) (aged ≥50 y of age) 5 , 6 are now facing unique challenges, thus shifting the focus from HIV-related chronic illnesses to noncommunicable, age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). 7 – 11 Multiple factors

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Cody R. Butler, Kirsten Allen, Lindsay J. DiStefano, and Lindsey K. Lepley

moderate to vigorous physical activity and take fewer steps per day, compared with healthy individuals. 1 Significant reductions in physical activity are a powerful indicator of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, those with a history of ACL injury may be at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease

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Morgan Potter, John C. Spence, Normand Boulé, Jodie A. Stearns, and Valerie Carson

Improved or high levels of physical fitness in children have been associated with a wealth of positive outcomes. For example, high or improved cardiovascular and muscular fitness are associated with lower total and central adiposity and a lower cardiovascular disease risk factor score ( 21 , 23