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Kerstin Gerst Emerson and Jennifer Gay

Despite increased efforts at eliminating disparities, differences continue to exist for racial and ethnic groups on a number of important health indicators for cardiovascular disease (CVD). There are a number of potential explanations for these persistent racial and ethnic disparities, including

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Michael D. Brown and Dulce H. Gomez

ethnicity, race, geography, education level, and socioeconomic status (SES). The overall cost of these health disparities in the United States has been estimated to be 1.24 trillion dollars ( Graham, 2015 ). Cardiovascular disease (CVD) arises from a complex interplay between genetic predisposition and

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James E. Peterman, David R. Bassett Jr, W. Holmes Finch, Matthew P. Harber, Mitchell H. Whaley, Bradley S. Fleenor, and Leonard A. Kaminsky

According to the American Heart Association, in 2016, 24.3 million adults in the United States had cardiovascular disease (CVD), excluding hypertension. 1 Since 1921, CVD has been the leading cause of death in the United States with 859,125 deaths attributed to CVD in 2017, an average of one CVD

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Christianne F. Coelho-Ravagnani, Jeeser A. Almeida, Xuemei Sui, Fabricio C.P. Ravagnani, Russell R. Pate, and Steven N. Blair

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, 1 and physical activity (PA) is one of the most important behavioral factors inversely related to CVD mortality and morbidity. 2 Since the first US federal recommendation on PA was published, in 1995, 3 public health

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Tongyu Ma, John R. Sirard, and Lydia Jennings

Regular physical activity has been widely recognized as an effective strategy for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Compelling evidence from epidemiological and clinical research demonstrated that physical activity could improve CVD risk factors, such as dyslipidemia and

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, and Steven N. Blair

conditions may have significantly reduced life expectancy. Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter referred to as fitness) are widely known to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 11 cardiovascular disease (CVD), 12 , 13 stroke, 14 cancer mortality, 15 , 16 and all

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Anna K. Porter, Samantha Schilsky, Kelly R. Evenson, Roberta Florido, Priya Palta, Katelyn M. Holliday, and Aaron R. Folsom

There is substantial evidence of an inverse dose–response relationship between physical activity and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. 1 , 2 Physical activity is also important for the prevention and management of risk factors for CVD, such as obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and insulin

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Amie Woodward, David Broom, Caroline Dalton, Mostafa Metwally, and Markos Klonizakis

/biochemical hyperandrogenism, (2) chronic anovulation/oligomenorrhea, and (3) polycystic ovaries. 2 Women must present with 2 out of the 3 symptoms to receive a diagnosis. PCOS affects fertility and is characterized by various cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, abdominal

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Youngdeok Kim, Joaquin U. Gonzales, and P. Hemachandra Reddy

-related morbidity and mortality. Several large-scale epidemiological studies have reported an inverse association between handgrip strength and risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) including hypertension, coronary heart disease, and diabetes along with cardiovascular mortality ( Cheung, Nguyen, Au, Tan

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Shannon Halloway, JoEllen Wilbur, Lynne T. Braun, Michael E. Schoeny, and Annabelle Santos Volgman

Prevalence of cognitive impairment increases with age and affects women more than men 1 – 5 due to a variety of unique risk factors related to biological sex and gender. 6 – 9 A leading risk factor for cognitive impairment is cardiovascular disease (CVD), which increases cognitive impairment by