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What is the State of the Science on Physical Activity Interventions for Family Caregivers? A Systematic Review and RE-AIM Evaluation

Colleen A. Cuthbert, Kathryn King-Shier, Dean Ruether, Dianne M. Tapp, and S. Nicole Culos-Reed


Family caregivers are an important health care resource and represent a significant proportion of Canadian and US populations. Family caregivers suffer physical and psychological health problems because of being in the caregiver role. Interventions to support caregiver health, including physical activity (PA), are slow to be investigated and translated into practice.


To examine the evidence for PA interventions in caregivers and determine factors hampering the uptake of this evidence into practice.


A systematic review and evaluation of internal and external validity using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework was conducted. Randomized controlled trials or pretest/posttest studies of PA interventions were included.


Fourteen studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Methodological quality of studies and risk of bias was variable. External validity criteria were often not reported. Mean reporting levels were 1) reach, 53%; 2) efficacy/effectiveness, 73%; 3) adoption, 18%; 4) implementation, 48%; and 5) maintenance, 2%.


The lack of reporting of components of internal and external validity hinders the integration of caregiver PA interventions into clinical or community settings. Researchers should focus on standardized outcomes, accepted reporting criteria, and balancing factors of internal and external validity, to advance the state of the science.

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The Feasibility of Remotely Delivered Exercise Session in Adults With Alzheimer’s Disease and Their Caregivers

Lauren T. Ptomey, Eric D. Vidoni, Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro, Michael A. Thompson, Joseph R. Sherman, Anna M. Gorczyca, Jerry L. Greene, Richard A. Washburn, and Joseph E. Donnelly

impairment include lack of transportation, poor memory, limited support from caregivers, lack of knowledge on how to exercise, lack of time, fear of injury, and limited resources ( Logsdon, McCurry, Pike, & Teri, 2009 ). Interventions to overcome these barriers and promote PA in individuals with AD are

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Gender Differences in Caregivers’ Attitudes to Risky Child Play in Britain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Andrea D. Smith, Helen F. Dodd, Luiza Ricardo, and Esther van Sluijs

) play. The British Children’s Play Survey (BCPS) showed that child age, sex, and disability status, and caregiver disability status, employment status, and age were all associated with children’s time spent playing with risk. In addition, parent tolerance of risk and engagement with risk in play were

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The Effect of a Physical Activity Intervention on Burden and Depressive Symptoms in Depressed Family Caregivers of Patients With Schizophrenia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Kerime Bademli, Neslihan Lök, and Sefa Lök

Schizophrenia commonly presents itself in early adulthood and disrupts patients’ lives, as they can exhibit a wide range of social and relational disabilities, necessitating long-term caregiving. Schizophrenia is a mental disorder in which caregivers are likely to experience increasing burden and

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Inclusive Decision Making for Falls Prevention: A Discussion Tool for Use With People With Dementia and Their Caregivers

Claudia Meyer, Sophie Hill, Keith D. Hill, and Briony Dow

, 2009 ). Tools and resources may assist service providers to better tailor services to the preferences of people with dementia and their caregivers. Decisions related to falls prevention are particularly complex, given the multidimensional nature of falls risk factors. Evidence-based strategies are

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A Systematic Review on the Prevalence of Physical Activity, and Barriers and Facilitators to Physical Activity, in Informal Carers in the United Kingdom

Joanna Horne, Nichola Kentzer, Lee Smith, Mike Trott, and Jitka Vseteckova

health, informal caregivers have been reported to suffer from anxiety, depression, and stress. 5 – 8 Importantly, carers are known to focus less on their own health needs and report more negative health behaviors than noncarers. 9 Moreover, two-thirds of informal carers state that they have focused on

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“Keep Moving”: Experiences of People With Parkinson’s and Their Care Partners in a Dance Class

Laura Prieto, Michael L. Norris, and Luis Columna

similar exercise settings. Notes 1. The terms “Parkinson’s” and “People/Participants with Parkinson’s” (PwP) are used in this study instead of “Parkinson’s disease” or “PD” to reflect a person-centered rather than a disease-centered approach ( Houston, 2011 ). 2. This study exchanges the term caregivers

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Daughters of Mothers With Multiple Sclerosis: Their Experiences of Play

Alison J. Jonzon and Donna L. Goodwin

The play experiences of daughters who were caregivers to their mothers with multiple sclerosis were described. The experiences of four Caucasian women aged 19–26 years were captured using the interpretive phenomenological methods of interviews, field notes, and artifacts. Family systems theory provided the conceptual framework for the study and facilitated the interpretation of the findings. The thematic analysis revealed three themes: (a) being a good daughter, (b) blurred relationship boundaries, and (c) encumbered play. Being a good daughter encompassed personal caregiving for their mothers. The associated guilt and worry was perceived to mature the participants beyond their years. Excessive caregiving exacerbated by limited social networks contributed to the blurring of mother-daughter relationships. Play, although restricted, provided a welcomed escape from caregiving responsibilities. Impoverished play experiences as caregivers were reported to negatively impact adult physical activity and recreation pursuits.

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Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise: Comparison of Memory Clinic Patients and Their Caregivers and Prediction of Activity Levels

Megan E. O’Connell, Vanina Dal Bello-Haas, Margaret Crossley, and Debra G. Morgan

Regular physical activity and exercise (PA&E) reduces cognitive aging, may delay dementia onset, and for persons with dementia, may slow progression and improve quality of life. Memory clinic patients and caregivers described their PA&E and completed the Older Persons’ Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire (OPAPAEQ). Caregivers and patients differed in their PA&E attitudes: patients were less likely to believe in the importance of PA&E for health promotion. PA&E attitudes were explored as predictors of self-reported exercise habits. Belief in the importance of high intensity exercise for health maintenance was the only variable that significantly predicted engagement in regular PA&E. Moreover, caregivers’ attitudes toward high intensity exercise predicted memory patients’ participation in PA&E. These findings may aid in development of exercise interventions for people with memory problems, and suggest that modification of specific attitudes toward exercise is an important component to ensure maximum participation and engagement in PA&E.

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Readability of Postconcussion Home Care Instructions

Kristen C. Schellhase, Andrew A. McIntosh, Isis I.A. Jennings-Collier, Madison D. Dininny, Richard I. Zraick, and L. Colby Mangum

relinquish care to a parent/guardian (or other designated adult) who is responsible for monitoring the patient. This caregiver must be able to recognize the delayed onset of symptoms that indicate a more serious brain injury that requires urgent referral (e.g., subdural hematoma and epidural hematoma). 1 , 2