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Colleen A. Cuthbert, Kathryn King-Shier, Dean Ruether, Dianne M. Tapp and S. Nicole Culos-Reed

Background:

Family caregivers are an important health care resource and represent a significant proportion of Canadian and US populations. Family caregivers suffer physical and psychological health problems because of being in the caregiver role. Interventions to support caregiver health, including physical activity (PA), are slow to be investigated and translated into practice.

Purpose:

To examine the evidence for PA interventions in caregivers and determine factors hampering the uptake of this evidence into practice.

Methods:

A systematic review and evaluation of internal and external validity using the RE-AIM (Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework was conducted. Randomized controlled trials or pretest/posttest studies of PA interventions were included.

Results:

Fourteen studies were published between 1997 and 2015. Methodological quality of studies and risk of bias was variable. External validity criteria were often not reported. Mean reporting levels were 1) reach, 53%; 2) efficacy/effectiveness, 73%; 3) adoption, 18%; 4) implementation, 48%; and 5) maintenance, 2%.

Conclusions:

The lack of reporting of components of internal and external validity hinders the integration of caregiver PA interventions into clinical or community settings. Researchers should focus on standardized outcomes, accepted reporting criteria, and balancing factors of internal and external validity, to advance the state of the science.

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Lauren T. Ptomey, Eric D. Vidoni, Esteban Montenegro-Montenegro, Michael A. Thompson, Joseph R. Sherman, Anna M. Gorczyca, Jerry L. Greene, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

impairment include lack of transportation, poor memory, limited support from caregivers, lack of knowledge on how to exercise, lack of time, fear of injury, and limited resources ( Logsdon, McCurry, Pike, & Teri, 2009 ). Interventions to overcome these barriers and promote PA in individuals with AD are

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Claudia Meyer, Sophie Hill, Keith D. Hill and Briony Dow

, 2009 ). Tools and resources may assist service providers to better tailor services to the preferences of people with dementia and their caregivers. Decisions related to falls prevention are particularly complex, given the multidimensional nature of falls risk factors. Evidence-based strategies are

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Alison J. Jonzon and Donna L. Goodwin

The play experiences of daughters who were caregivers to their mothers with multiple sclerosis were described. The experiences of four Caucasian women aged 19–26 years were captured using the interpretive phenomenological methods of interviews, field notes, and artifacts. Family systems theory provided the conceptual framework for the study and facilitated the interpretation of the findings. The thematic analysis revealed three themes: (a) being a good daughter, (b) blurred relationship boundaries, and (c) encumbered play. Being a good daughter encompassed personal caregiving for their mothers. The associated guilt and worry was perceived to mature the participants beyond their years. Excessive caregiving exacerbated by limited social networks contributed to the blurring of mother-daughter relationships. Play, although restricted, provided a welcomed escape from caregiving responsibilities. Impoverished play experiences as caregivers were reported to negatively impact adult physical activity and recreation pursuits.

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Megan E. O’Connell, Vanina Dal Bello-Haas, Margaret Crossley and Debra G. Morgan

Regular physical activity and exercise (PA&E) reduces cognitive aging, may delay dementia onset, and for persons with dementia, may slow progression and improve quality of life. Memory clinic patients and caregivers described their PA&E and completed the Older Persons’ Attitudes Toward Physical Activity and Exercise Questionnaire (OPAPAEQ). Caregivers and patients differed in their PA&E attitudes: patients were less likely to believe in the importance of PA&E for health promotion. PA&E attitudes were explored as predictors of self-reported exercise habits. Belief in the importance of high intensity exercise for health maintenance was the only variable that significantly predicted engagement in regular PA&E. Moreover, caregivers’ attitudes toward high intensity exercise predicted memory patients’ participation in PA&E. These findings may aid in development of exercise interventions for people with memory problems, and suggest that modification of specific attitudes toward exercise is an important component to ensure maximum participation and engagement in PA&E.

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Anna-Eva Prick, Jacomine de Lange, Erik Scherder, Jos Twisk and Anne Margriet Pot

proportion of people with dementia living in residential care has started to decrease in high-income countries ( Prince et al., 2015 ). Currently, in high-income countries, two-thirds of the people living with dementia are cared for at home, with up to 90% of their care provided by informal caregivers, such

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Simone A. Tomaz, Anthony D. Okely, Alastair van Heerden, Khanya Vilakazi, Marie-Louise Samuels and Catherine E. Draper

online survey included parents, caregivers, ECD practitioners, teachers, health professionals, social workers, lay health workers, and counselors. The number of people who received the online survey (via e-mail) is not known. The online survey comprised of 3 sections (questions regarding the title

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Maureen R. Weiss, Lindsay E. Kipp, Alison Phillips Reichter, Sarah M. Espinoza and Nicole D. Bolter

stakeholders—girls, coaches, caregivers, and school personnel—to identify converging and diverging evidence of program impact. Methods Quantitative survey methods were used to assess the Five Cs , physical activity, and sedentary behavior, and qualitative focus groups were conducted to further gather

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Hongjun Yu and Andiara Schwingel

major cities in China. Our specific objectives were (a) to determine if and where individuals who were more sedentary spent more (out-of-pocket) on health care through outpatient care, inpatient care, medication, and caregiver days; (b) to examine if and where individuals who were more physically active

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Catherine E. Draper, Simone A. Tomaz, Linda Biersteker, Caylee J. Cook, Jacqui Couper, Monique de Milander, Kamesh Flynn, Sonja Giese, Soezin Krog, Estelle V. Lambert, Tamarin Liebenberg, Cyndi Mendoza, Terri Nunes, Anita Pienaar, Alessandra Priorieschi, Dale E. Rae, Nafeesa Rahbeeni, John J. Reilly, Louis Reynolds, Marie-Louise Samuels, Ricardo Siljeur, Jody Urion, Mariza van Wyk and Anthony D. Okely

parents, caregivers, teachers, and practitioners. The 24-hour approach considers young children’s development in the context of how they move throughout a typical day (a combination of sleeping, sitting, standing, and different intensities of physical activity) and acknowledges that the whole day matters