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Sae Young Jae, Kevin Heffernan, Bo Fernhall and Yoon-Ho Choi


We tested the hypothesis that higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness are inversely associated with carotid artery intima media thickness in 746 (age 53 ± 7 yrs) men with type 2 diabetes.


We measured common carotid intima media thickness and defined carotid atherosclerosis as a carotid intima media thickness > 1.0 mm. Cardiorespiratory fitness was directly measured by peak oxygen uptake using expired gases analysis during a standard treadmill test.


Cardiorespiratory fitness was independently associated with common carotid intima media thickness in multivariable regression (β = –0.15, P < .05). After adjusting for established risk factors, high and moderate cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with lower odds ratios for having carotid atherosclerosis—0.49 (95% CI, 0.30–0.81), and 0.59 (95% CI, 0.38–0.92), respectively—as compared with low cardiorespiratory fitness. Each 1 metabolic equivalent increment higher cardiorespiratory fitness was associated with 27% (OR = 0.73; 95% CI, 0.61–0.87) lower prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis.


These results suggest that high cardiorespiratory fitness is inversely associated with common carotid intima media thickness in men with type 2 diabetes.

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Joowon Lee, Baojiang Chen, Harold W. Kohl III, Carolyn E. Barlow, Chong Do Lee, Nina B. Radford, Laura F. DeFina and Kelley P. Gabriel

study, in a fully adjusted model including aerobic PA, meeting PAG recommendations for MSA was not inversely associated with abnormal CIMT, a preclinical marker for carotid atherosclerosis, in an older cohort (mean age of 68.6 years, predominantly male) without a history of prior clinical CVD

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Joowon Lee, Baojiang Chen, Harold W. Kohl III, Carolyn E. Barlow, Chong do Lee, Nina B. Radford, Laura F. DeFina and Kelley P. Gabriel

 al., 2012 ). Although treatment of hypertension and high cholesterol and cigarette cessation have been shown to reduce the risk of developing carotid atherosclerosis, few studies have examined the association of PA directly with carotid atherosclerosis, and the majority have found no association between PA

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Samuel G. Wittekind, Nicholas M. Edwards, Philip R. Khoury, Connie E. McCoy, Lawrence M. Dolan, Thomas R. Kimball and Elaine M. Urbina

RB . Association of carotid atherosclerosis and left ventricular hypertrophy . J Am Coll Cardiol . 1995 ; 25 ( 1 ): 83 – 90 . PubMed doi:10.1016 7798531 10.1016/0735-1097(94)00316-I 22. Urbina EM , Kimball TR , McCoy CE , Khoury PR , Daniels SR , Dolan LM . Youth with obesity and

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Declan J. Ryan, Jorgen A. Wullems, Georgina K. Stebbings, Christopher I. Morse, Claire E. Stewart and Gladys L. Onambele-Pearson

objective tool in the assessment of children with clinical dehydration . Acad Emerg Med . 2007 ; 14 ( 10 ): 841 – 845 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2007.tb02314.x 17898246 10.1197/j.aem.2007.06.040 22. Furberg CD , Adams HP , Applegate WB , et al . Effect of lovastatin on early carotid

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Declan Ryan, Jorgen Wullems, Georgina Stebbings, Christopher Morse, Claire Stewart and Gladys Onambele-Pearson

of extracranial carotid arteries are associated with ischemic stroke independently of carotid atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors . J Clin Ultrasound . 2007 ; 35 ( 6 ): 322 – 330 . doi:10.1002/jcu.20351 17471583 10.1002/jcu.20351 9. Burke GL , Evans GW , Riley WA , et