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Andrew J. Hutchison and Lynne H. Johnston

The purpose of this article is to expand the literature on case formulation as a clinical tool for use within exercise psychology, generally and lifestyle behavior change interventions, specifically. Existing research offers limited support for the efficacy of current physical activity behavior change intervention strategies, particularly in the long-term. The present paper argues that intervention strategies need to pay greater attention to the complex and individualistic nature of exercise and health related behaviors. It has been suggested that existing intervention designs tend to conform to a medical model approach, which can at times potentially neglect the complex array of personal and situational factors that impact on human motivation and behavior. Case formulation is presented as a means of encouraging a dynamic and comprehensive approach to the development and implementation of practical interventions within the health behavior change field. The adoption of these clinical techniques may facilitate the careful consideration of variations in the development, manifestation, and maintaining mechanisms of problematic behaviors (e.g., inactivity). An overview of case formulation in its different forms is presented alongside a justification for its use within exercise psychology.

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Frank L. Gardner and Zella E. Moore

Providing effective sport psychology services requires practitioners to conceptualize the unique issues and concerns of each individual athlete. However, collecting information on the athlete, understanding the athlete’s issues and needs, and determining how to best assist the athlete can be a complex process. Thus, this article outlines a case formulation approach to help the sport psychology consultant assess the athlete, organize and conceptualize assessment data, classify the athlete’s issues, and choose interventions that directly target those factors that are impeding the athlete’s progress in athletics or other life domains. Two case examples are provided to illustrate the case formulation process.

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David E. Conroy and Lorna Smith Benjamin

Psychodynamic concepts have only recently begun to attract serious attention in the sport psychology literature. A dynamically based, interpersonal approach to sport psychology consultation is outlined in this article. Key interpersonal constructs such as important persons and their internalized representations (IPIRs), copy processes, and self-sacrificing gifts of love are described to portray how a case formulation may be developed to explain and guide interventions to overcome some performance problems. Two cases, one involving a performance phobia and the other an enduring slump related to a fear of success, are presented to demonstrate the unique contributions of interpersonal case formulations in performance enhancement consultation.

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Jessica M. Lutkenhouse

The present case study illustrates the treatment of a 19-year-old female lacrosse player, classified as experiencing Performance Dysfunction (Pdy) by the Multilevel Classification System for Sport Psychology (MCS-SP). The self-referred collegiate athlete was treated using the manualized Mindfulness-Acceptance-Commitment (MAC) protocol (Gardner & Moore, 2004a, 2007). The intervention consisted of eight individual sessions and several follow-up contacts via e-mail. The majority of the sessions addressed clinically related and sport-related concerns, including difficulties in emotion regulation and problematic interpersonal relationships. Based on self-report, coach report, and one outcome assessment measure, the psychological intervention resulted in enhanced overall behavioral functioning and enhanced athletic performance. This case study suggests that following careful case formulation based on appropriate assessment and interview data, the MAC intervention successfully targeted the clearly defined psychological processes underlying the athlete’s performance concerns and personal obstacles, thus resulting in enhanced well-being and athletic performance improvements.

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Chris Hartley

’s needs in this manner improved my contextual awareness and the integrity of my subsequent case formulation and implementation plan ( Beckmann & Kellmann, 2003 ; Weston, Greenlees, & Thelwell, 2013 ). Semistructured Interviews My initial interview with Mel was guided by the “Brief Case Conceptualization

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Carolina Lundqvist

clinical psychotherapist in the Swedish health care system; and (c) has extensive applied experience of providing psychological support to Olympic athletes. The author performed the clinical interview, the case formulation, and the subsequent BA treatment with Foa. Using established procedures of cognitive

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Martin J. Turner, Gillian Aspin, Faye F. Didymus, Rory Mack, Peter Olusoga, Andrew G. Wood, and Richard Bennett

six core ACT processes and try to establish the unique version of psychological inflexibility that Jordan is experiencing ( Luoma, Hayes, & Walser, 2017 ). There is no right or wrong place to start in ACT case formulation, but since Jordan began by discussing embarrassment and anger, we might start by

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Claire-Marie Roberts

fundamental importance to the success of the intervention. Case Formulation The case formulation was informed by the comprehensive assessment of the athlete, gathering data direct from her self-report assessments, her sport-clinical intake protocol, the interviewing of her parents and the data provided to me

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Ben Laslett and Mark Uphill

and that complementing individual face-to-face, workshop opportunities an online presence could help students access self-help at times that were appropriate to their training and competition schedules. Case Formulation Case formulation is perhaps most visible in cognitive-behavioral approaches to

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Andrew Powell

contribute positively to its formation and maintenance ( Fife et al., 2014 ). Flückiger et al. ( 2018 ) outlined a number of therapist actions and practices integral to therapeutic alliance, such as responding to the client’s readiness/stage of change and capabilities, creating an individual case formulation