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Florian Engel, Sascha Härtel, Jana Strahler, Matthias Oliver Wagner, Klaus Bös and Billy Sperlich

This study aimed to determine the effects of a single high-intensity interval training (HIIT) session on salivary cortisol (SC) levels, physiological responses, and performance in trained boys and men. Twenty-three boys (11.5 ± 0.8 years) and 25 men (29.7 ± 4.6 years) performed HIIT (4 consecutive Wingate Anaerobic Tests). SC in boys and men increased after HIIT from 5.55 ± 3.3 nmol/l to 15.13 ± 9.7 nmol/l (+173%) and from 7.07 ± 4.7 nmol/l to 19.19 ± 12.7 nmol/l (+171%), respectively (p < .01). Pretest SC as well as posttest changes were comparable in both groups (both p < .01). Peak blood lactate concentration was significantly lower in boys (12.6 ± 3.5 mmol/l) than in men (16.3 ± 3.1 mmol/l; p < .01). Throughout the HIIT, mean heart rates in boys were higher (p < .001) but relative peak oxygen uptake (ml·min−1·kg−1; p < .05) and performance were lower (p < .001) in boys than in men. HIIT in young athletes is associated with a higher activation of the hormonal stress axis than other types of exercise regimes as described in the literature. This study is the first to show a pronounced SC increase to HIIT in trained boys accompanied by elevated levels of blood lactate concentrations and heart rate suggesting a high cardio-respiratory, metabolic, and hormonal response to HIIT in 11-year-old boys.

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Andressa Silva, Fernanda V. Narciso, Igor Soalheiro, Fernanda Viegas, Luísa S.N. Freitas, Adriano Lima, Bruno A. Leite, Haroldo C. Aleixo, Rob Duffield and Marco T. de Mello

because these processes are regulated by anabolic hormones (testosterone and growth hormone) and catabolic hormones (cortisol and myostatin), which are strongly influenced by sleep. 20 Athletes who do not have restorative sleep or of low quality do not enjoy the metabolic benefits of sleep, which can be

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Kirsty J. Elliott-Sale, Adam S. Tenforde, Allyson L. Parziale, Bryan Holtzman and Kathryn E. Ackerman

activate the HPA axis, resulting in higher cortisol levels ( Schorr et al., 2015 ). Although cortisol likely contributes to increased adiposity during energy abundance, cortisol is also an important catabolic hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex in response to prolonged exercise, starvation, glycogen

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Petter Fagerberg

, J. , Valter , I. , & Jürimäe , T. ( 2010 ). Anabolic and catabolic hormones and energy balance of the male bodybuilders during the preparation for the competition . Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 24 ( 4 ), 1074 – 1081 . PubMed doi:10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cb6fd3 10.1519/JSC.0b