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Hardeep Singh, Mark Lee, Matthew J. Solomito, Christian Merrill, and Carl Nissen

vertebral body, can result from spondylolysis. Both processes can potentially cause back pain and discomfort, with variable associated neurologic symptoms. 1 , 2 The overall incidence of spondylolysis has been reported to be 4.4% in children aged <6 years and increases to 6% to 11% by adulthood. 3 , 4

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Marcus B. Stone, Jeffrey E. Edwards, Catherine L. Stemmans, Christopher D. Ingersoll, Riann M. Palmieri, and B. Andrew Krause


Despite recent evidence to suggest that exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMC) might be primarily of neuromuscular origin, the authors surmise that most information available to certified athletic trainers (ATCs) emphasizes the role of dehydration and electrolyte imbalance in EAMC.


To investigate ATCs' perceptions of EAMC.


7-question, Web-based, descriptive, cross-sectional survey.


997 ATCs.

Main Outcome Measures:

Responses to 7 questions regarding the cause, treatment, and prevention of EAMC.


Responders indicated humidity, temperature, training, dehydration, and electrolyte imbalance as causative factors of EAMC. Fluid replacement and stretching the involved muscle were identified as very successful in treating and preventing EAMC. Proper nutrition and electrolyte replacement were also perceived as extremely successful prevention strategies.


ATCs' perceptions of the cause, treatment, and prevention of EAMC are primarily centered on dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Other prominent ideas concerning EAMC should be implemented in athletic training education.

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Gina M. McCaskill, Olivio J. Clay, Peng Li, Richard E. Kennedy, Kathryn L. Burgio, and Cynthia J. Brown

mortality among men and women 60 years of age and older. They found that participants with high cardiorespiratory fitness had lower all-cause mortality risk and lower cardiovascular disease risk, compared with participants with low cardiorespiratory fitness. Among older adults, veterans may represent a

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, Steven N. Blair, Rômulo Araújo Fernandes, Jamile Sanches Codogno, and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

mortality in a specific population (hypertension) from an emerging country. It is not clear how transferable findings are from developed countries to emerging nations. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of TV viewing with all-cause mortality in a hypertensive population from the

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Dennis van Erck, Eric J. Wenker, Koen Levels, Carl Foster, Jos J. de Koning, and Dionne A. Noordhof

.4%]) and 1200 m (17.3% [2.4%]), when GE was determined during a 5-minute exercise bout at similar absolute PO between 50 and 250 W. Clark et al, 9 however, discussed that the difference in GE was caused by the higher pedaling frequency at altitude, which is supported by the data summarized by Ettema and

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Ítalo Ribeiro Lemes, Xuemei Sui, Stacy L. Fritz, Paul F. Beattie, Carl J. Lavie, Bruna Camilo Turi-Lynch, and Steven N. Blair

conditions may have significantly reduced life expectancy. Higher levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (hereafter referred to as fitness) are widely known to be associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus, 11 cardiovascular disease (CVD), 12 , 13 stroke, 14 cancer mortality, 15 , 16 and all-cause

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Eddie T.C. Lam

Edited by Lisa A. Kihl. Published 2018 by Routledge , New York, NY. $140 . 221 pp. ISBN: 978-1-138-93570-9 Corruption in Sport: Causes, Consequences, and Reform is edited by Lisa Kihl, who is also one of 20 contributing authors. This book has 13 chapters (221 pp.) that can be divided into five

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Carol Anne Parsons and Daniel Soucie

This study investigated the perceived causes of procrastination by sport administrators (N=63) in Canadian sport governing bodies. More specifically, it attempted to determine why these administrators would procrastinate or avoid decisions and actions for which they are responsible. Results obtained from an original questionnaire comprising 25 Likert statements and 7 open-ended questions generally indicate that (a) the most important cause of procrastination is the inability to say no to various requests for one’s time; (b) there is evidence that sport administrators tend to attribute the causes of procrastination to the organizational environment rather than to themselves; (c) some of the more important organization-related causes of procrastination appear to be unpleasant aspects of the task, heavy workloads assigned, too many options or no guidelines given for task completion, no fixed deadlines or time limits, and unimportance and insignificance of tasks.

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Ansku Holstila, Ossi Rahkonen, Eero Lahelma, and Jouni Lahti


The association between changes in physical activity and sickness absence is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between changes in leisure-time physical activity and long-term sickness absence due to any cause and musculoskeletal and mental causes.


We measured physical activity at baseline in 2000–2002 (response rate 67%) and at follow-up in 2007 (response rate 83%) among middle-aged employees of the City of Helsinki, Finland. The survey data were linked to the Finnish Social Insurance Institute’s register data on sickness benefit periods > 9 days, including diagnoses (ICD-10; International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10th revision) (mean follow-up 2.3 years). We used a negative binomial model to calculate rate ratios. The analyses included 4010 respondents (81% women).


Those who were persistently vigorously active and those whose physical activity level changed from low to moderate or vigorous, from moderate to vigorous, or from vigorous to moderate were at lower risk for sickness absence than were the persistently low-activity group. For sickness absence due to musculoskeletal causes, vigorous activity showed stronger associations, whereas mental causes showed no such associations.


To reduce sickness absence due to both musculoskeletal and mental causes, middle-aged and aging employees should be encouraged to engage in physical activity.

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William Boyer, James Churilla, Amy Miller, Trevor Gillum, and Marshare Penny

The recently published Physical Activity (PA) Guidelines Committee report summarized the detailed evidence confirming a dose–response relationship between aerobic PA and all-cause mortality. 1 This relationship is consistent across several modes of PA, including walking, cycling, and dancing, as