The innovations of social media have altered the traditional methods of fan–athlete interaction while redefining how celebrity athletes practice their roles as celebrities. This study explored gender differences in professional athletes’ self-presentation on Twitter. Content analyses were used to compare male and female athletes’ tweets relayed by all professional tennis players with a verified Twitter account. Profile details and messages were scoured for themes and patterns of use during the time surrounding the 2011 U.S. Open Tennis Championships. Goffman’s seminal 1959 theory of self-presentation guided the analysis. While athlete image construction was found to be largely similar between genders, male athletes were found to spend more time in the role of sport fan while female athletes spent more time in the role of brand manager.
Katie Lebel and Karen Danylchuk
Brianna L. Newland, Laurence Chalip and John L. Ivy
To determine whether athletes are confused about supplementation, this study examines the relative levels of adult runners’ and triathletes’ preferences for postexercise recovery drink attributes (price, fat, taste, scientific evidence, and endorsement by a celebrity athlete), and the ways those preferences segment. It then examines the effect of athlete characteristics on segment and drink choice. Only a plurality of athletes (40.6%) chose a carbohydrate-protein postexercise recovery drink (the optimal choice), despite the fact that they valued scientific evidence highly. Athletes disliked or were indifferent to endorsement by a celebrity athlete, moderately disliked fat, and slightly preferred better tasting products. Cluster analysis of part-worths from conjoint analysis identified six market segments, showing that athletes anchored on one or two product attributes when choosing among alternatives. Multinomial logistic regression revealed that media influence, hours trained, market segment, gender, and the athlete’s sport significantly predicted drink choice, and that segment partially mediated the effect of sport on drink choice. Findings demonstrate confusion among athletes when there are competing products that each claim to support their training.
Meghan M. Ferriter
This article explores the socially constructed space of Wikipedia and how the process and structure of Wikipedia enable it to act both as a vehicle for communication between sport fans and to subtly augment existing public narratives about sport. As users create article narratives, they educate fellow fans in relevant social and sport meanings. This study analyzes two aspects of Wikipedia for sports fans, application of statistical information and connecting athletes with other sports figures and organizations, through a discourse analysis of article content and the discussion pages of ten sample athletes. These pages of retired celebrity athletes provide a means for exploring the multidirectional production processes used by the sport fan community to celebrate recorded events of sporting history in clearly delineated and verifiable ways, thus maintaining the sport fans’ community social values.
Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko and Brad D. Carlson
brand managers, there has been an increasing focus on the strategic management of human brands ( Geurin, 2017 ). Research suggests that, among many types of celebrities, athletes produce high levels of tangible and intangible values, such as constant stock-returns effects and image development for firms
celebrity publicity, however, may not be so unilinear and predictable, as recent news outlets have discussed. For example, a 2013 NBC article suggested that the sales of products endorsed by celebrity athletes and consumer responses to these products may not be adversely affected by the celebrity athlete
-fitted celebrity athletes. Third, the primary objective of endorsements is to have brand leveraging effects. In other words, product marketers often attempt to increase their brand equity by borrowing equity from celebrity athletes ( Chang & Ko, 2018 ). For this purpose, marketers frequently utilize the EC
Shawn Forde and Brian Wilson
). Digital activism: Neo-liberalism, the internet, and ‘sport for youth development’ . Sociology of Sport Journal, 26 ( 1 ), 155 – 181 . doi:10.1123/ssj.26.1.155 10.1123/ssj.26.1.155 Wilson , B. , Van Luijk , N. , & Boit , M. ( 2015 ). When celebrity athletes are ‘social movement entrepreneurs’: A