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Dariush Sheikholeslami-Vatani, Slahadin Ahmadi and Hassan Faraji

in neurodegenerative diseases, ischemic damage, autoimmune disorders, and many types of cancer ( Elmore, 2007 ). Cell death program is initiated by a variety of extracellular or intracellular signaling pathways. Three major pathways can be involved in the apoptotic cascades: the extrinsic pathway

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George T. Baker III and George R. Martin

Aging is characterized by numerous physical, physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes. The rates at which aging processes occur are highly variable among individuals and are thought to be governed by both environmental and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors such as exercise, dietary, and smoking habits have been demonstrated to alter many of the changes usually associated with human aging. However, at present caloric restriction is the only experimental paradigm that has consistently been demonstrated in animal models to extend not only physiological vigor but also life span. The positive effects of exercise on physiological fitness and the reduction in the risks of certain diseases have been well documented. However, its effects on life span are not as clear. This article explores some of the basic mechanisms thought to be involved causally in the processes of aging, and outlines current and potential interventive strategies to retard or ameliorate the rates of decline in physiological function with advancing age.

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Vinicius Coneglian Santos, Adriana Cristina Levada-Pires, Sâmia Rocha Alves, Tânia Cristina Pithon-Curi, Rui Curi and Maria Fernanda Cury-Boaventura


To investigate the effects of docosahexaenoic-(DHA)-rich fish oil (FO) supplementation on lymphocyte function before and after a marathon race.


Twenty-one athletes participated in this study. Eight marathon runners were supplemented with 3 g of FO daily for 60 d (FO group), and 13 athletes were not supplemented (C group). The following measures of lymphocytes were taken before and after the marathon: cell proliferation, cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α, and IL-4), and signs of cell death.


In the C group, the marathon had no effect on lymphocyte proliferation, DNA fragmentation, or mitochondrial membrane polarization; however, the marathon increased phosphatidylserine externalization (by 2.5-fold), induced a loss of plasma membrane integrity (by 20%), and decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production (by 55%, 95%, and 50%, respectively). FO supplementation did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by the marathon, as indicated by cell viability, DNA fragmentation, and phosphatidylserine externalization. However, FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation before and after the marathon, and before the race, FO supplementation decreased IL-2, TNF-α, and IL-10 production in concanavalin-A-stimulated lymphocytes (by 55%, 95%, and 58%, respectively) compared with cells from the C group. The production of cytokines was not altered before or after the race in the FO group.


DHA-rich FO supplementation increased lymphocyte proliferation and prevented a decrease in cytokine production, but it did not prevent lymphocyte death induced by participation in the marathon. Overall, DHA rich-FO supplementation has beneficial effects in preventing some of the changes in lymphocyte function induced by marathon participation.

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Nils Haller, Tobias Ehlert, Sebastian Schmidt, David Ochmann, Björn Sterzing, Franz Grus and Perikles Simon

) passive cell death, (2) active release, or (3) impaired clearance. 9 , 11 , 14 Although rapid increases as an acute reaction to exercise were attributed to active release mechanisms like neutrophil extracellular traps or DNA-containing extracellular vesicles, 11 a chronic increase of resting

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Michal Botek, Jakub Krejčí, Andrew J. McKune and Barbora Sládečková

: 17486089 doi: 10.1038/nm1577 17486089 5. Murakami Y , Ito M , Ohsawa I . Molecular hydrogen protects against oxidative stress-induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell death through the process of mitohormesis . PLoS One . 2017 ; 12 : e0176992 . PubMed ID: 28467497 doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0176992

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

cell death ( Giza & Hovda, 2001 ). These processes are highly affected by the resilience of the mitochondria in the brain, which assists the cell in this recovery process ( Vagnozzi et al., 2007 ). In the athlete’s brain, mitochondria are more numerous and dense in the soma of the neuron ( Steiner

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Susan Y. Kwiecien, Malachy P. McHugh, Stuart Goodall, Kirsty M. Hicks, Angus M. Hunter and Glyn Howatson

inflammatory process that occurs following exercise, thereby mitigating any additional damage caused by the inflammatory response 18 and limiting further hemorrhage and cell death. 21 In support of this rationale, it has previously been demonstrated in an animal model that local cooling at 8°C for 6 hours

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Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Francine Golghetto Casemiro, Camila Tiome Baba, Diana Monteiro, Mariana Fornazieri, Natália Cerri, Daniele Frascá Martins Fernandes and Grace Angélica de Oliveira Gomes

.1186/1479-5868-9-106 62. Del Duca S , Serafini-Fracassini D , Cai G . Senescence and programmed cell death in plants: polyamine action mediated by transglutaminase . Front Plant Sci . 2014 ; 5 : 120 . PubMed doi:10.3389/fpls.2014.00120 10.3389/fpls.2014.00120 63. Souza MZ , Leal GCL , Huzita EHM . Um

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Victor Spiandor Beretta, Fabio Augusto Barbieri, Diego Orcioli-Silva, Paulo Cezar Rocha dos Santos, Lucas Simieli, Rodrigo Vitório and Lilian Teresa Bucken Gobbi

theoretical possibility is that, for some reason, one substantia nigra is more vulnerable than the other, and once the degenerative process starts, accelerated cell death occurs first on that side (see Djaldetti et al., 2006 for more details). The unilateral signs/symptoms of disease cause asymmetry in the