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Andrew M. Edwards and Raewyn E. Walker

The efficacy of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been the subject of considerable controversy in terms of whether it is beneficial to endurance athletes and because a convincing physiological rationale has not been identified to explain its mechanism of action. Early studies suggested that IMT was an ineffectual intervention for gains in either maximal aerobic power or endurance-specific performance. More rigorous recent research supports the observation that maximal aerobic power is not receptive to IMT; however, closer evaluation of both early and contemporary research indicates that responses to endurance-specific performance tests are sensitive to IMT. As the aim of endurance training is to improve endurance performance rather than maximal aerobic power, it is plausible that IMT may be useful in specific performance-related circumstances. Performance adaptations following IMT appear to be connected with post training reports of attenuated effort sensations, but this common observation has tended to be overlooked by researchers in preference for a reductionist explanation. This commentary examines the pertinent research and practical performance implications of IMT from the holistic perspective of complex central metabolic control.

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Tomasz Skowronek, Grzegorz Juras, and Kajetan J. Słomka

fatigue” does not explain our observations. Recent ideas called the “central governor model” explain the fatigue mechanism in different ways. According to this concept, the neural control system in the brain and spinal cord control establish the number of motor units that are activated in the muscles to

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

, 16 , 17 and will likely accumulate throughout the race. In this perspective, a higher level of fatigue has indeed been shown to alter the attentional focus from external to internal variables. 18 For many years, the central governor model has been the predominant theory underpinning exercise

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Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román, Juan Francisco Fernández-Povedano, Jesús Salas-Sánchez, Felipe García-Pinillos, and Juan Antonio Párraga-Montilla

of an intelligent central governor located in the subconscious brain. It seems likely that brain regulation operates at different levels of awareness, such that minor homeostatic challenges are addressed automatically without conscious awareness, whereas larger metabolic disturbances attract

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Wouter Schallig, Tim Veneman, Dionne A. Noordhof, José A. Rodríguez-Marroyo, John P. Porcari, Jos J. de Koning, and Carl Foster

. Marcora SM . Do we really need a central governor to explain brain regulation of exercise performance? Eur J Appl Physiol . 2008 ; 104 ( 5 ): 929 – 931 . doi:10.1007/s00421-008-0818-3 10.1007/s00421-008-0818-3 24. Abbiss CR , Peiffer JJ , Meeusen R , Skorski S . Role of ratings of

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Marco J. Konings and Florentina J. Hettinga

central governor to explain brain regulation of exercise performance? Eur J Appl Physiol . 2008 ; 104 ( 5 ): 929 – 931 . PubMed ID: 18618133 doi:10.1007/s00421-008-0818-3 10.1007/s00421-008-0818-3 5. Swart J , Lamberts RP , Lambert MI , et al . Exercising with reserve: exercise regulation

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Scott McLean, Hugo A. Kerhervé, Nicholas Stevens, and Paul M. Salmon

( 10 ): 577 – 584 . doi:10.2519/jospt.2020.9211 10.2519/jospt.2020.9211 32741323 15. Marino FE . Is it time to retire the ‘central governor’? A philosophical and evolutionary perspective . Sports Med . 2010 ; 40 ( 3 ): 265 – 268 . PubMed ID: 20229620 doi:10.2165/11533680-000000000-00000 20229620

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Peter Ibbott, Nick Ball, Marijke Welvaert, and Kevin G. Thompson

fatigue (physical or mental) interfering with the (successful) completion of the task. 3 In recent years, a number of exercise regulation models have been proposed to assist in understanding how pacing works including the teleoanticipatory, 4 central governor, 5 perception based, 6 psychobiological, 7

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Carolina F. Wilke, Samuel P. Wanner, Weslley H.M. Santos, Eduardo M. Penna, Guilherme P. Ramos, Fabio Y. Nakamura, and Rob Duffield

, Segerstrom SC . The nature of self-regulatory fatigue and “ego depletion”: lessons from physical fatigue . Pers Soc Psychol Rev . 2016 ; 20 ( 4 ): 291 – 310 . PubMed ID: 26228914 doi:10.1177/1088868315597841 10.1177/1088868315597841 26228914 31. Inzlicht M , Marcora SM . The central governor model