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Daniel Gilfeather, Grant Norte, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Neal R. Glaviano

assessments alone. 11 , 12 One outcome that has been used to evaluate muscle function is the central activation ratio (CAR), assessed by the SIBT. CAR has previously been utilized in research as a way to measure the volitional activation of the quadriceps in a variety of pathologies. 13 – 15 The CAR is a

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Hyung Jin Kim and Chanam Lee

Background:

A public elementary school has traditionally functioned as an important center of a neighborhood, but this role has diminished with sprawling urban developments. Despite the large number of studies of children’s walking to/from school (WTS), the school’s location in relation to the larger neighborhood context has not been fully explored. This study is to examine the relationship between school’s spatial centrality and children’s WTS in urban, suburban and rural settings.

Methods:

this study used school travel tally (11,721 students), environment audit, GIS and census data from 71 elementary school/neighborhoods in Texas, and employed the closeness centrality index to estimate a school’s spatial centrality. Data were collected from 2009–2012.

Results:

After controlling for neighborhood characteristics, it was found that more centrally located schools are likely to have higher proportions of WTS in the neighborhoods. And, among urban, suburban and rural settings, urban schools were the most and rural schools were the least likely to be centrally-located in the neighborhoods.

Conclusions:

The findings offer implications on school and community planning policies that can help promote WTS. Spatial centrality measures can be effective tools to identify environmental factors in complex urban networks related to human behaviors and community-based activities.

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John C. Phillips

Earlier work (Phillips, 1983) showed limited or no progress in the accessibility of central positions (catcher, shortstop, second base) to black professional baseball aspirants. A closer examination of the data reveals an interesting change during the past two decades. Blacks came to appear in numbers at second base in the mid-1970s and at shortstop during the 1976-1986 decade, but this progress was obscured when the three central positions were combined. Separation of the three positions reveals a clear pattern of progress in accessibility, first at second base, the least central of the central positions, then at shortstop, but not yet at catcher, the most central position. Another pattern of discrimination, exclusion of weak-hitting black players in favor of weak-hitting white players, seems to have disappeared. Some theoretical and practical implications of this apparent decline in discrimination are discussed.

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Michael L. Naraine, Jessie Schenk and Milena M. Parent

This paper sought to examine the stakeholder network governance structures of two international and two domestic multisports events focusing on (a) exploring the structural connectedness of these networks and (b) illuminating powerful stakeholders vis-à-vis centrality and the ability to control the network’s flow. An exploratory, comparative case study design was built by means of 58 interviews and 550 archival materials. Findings highlight international sports events are sparsely connected networks with power concentrated in the organizing committee, government, and venue stakeholders, who broker coordination with other stakeholders. In contrast, domestic sport event organizing committees appear more decentralized as coordinating actors: Sport organizations, sponsors, and community-based stakeholders emerged as highly connected, powerful stakeholders. Domestic event governance decentralization highlights a potential imbalance in stakeholder interests through network flow control by multiple actors, while the governments’ centrality in international events demonstrates not only mode-dependent salience but also visibility/reputational risks and jurisdictional responsibilities-based salience.

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John V. Basmajian

In the symphony of neuromotor performance, the muscles are the powerful woodwinds, the ligaments are the essential string section, and the central nervous system both writes and conducts the performance. Electromyography (EMG) has provided the platform and technology in the past half century to bring appreciation of the superb functions of all the parts of the healthy body in concert. This broad “review” provides vignettes of many aspects of motor controls in the upper and lower limbs explored with EMG by the author and his students.

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Dominic Malcolm

This paper examines the phenomenon of stacking in the sport of cricket. It is argued that cricket is a particularly revealing case study of “race” relations in Britain because of the diversity of “racial” groups that play it and the variety of national identities that are expressed through it. Data presented show that the two minority “racial” groups in British cricket are stacked in different positions; Asians as high-status batters, and Blacks as low-status bowlers (pitchers). The author uses the work of Norbert Elias to argue that stacking can best be explained, not in terms of positional centrality, but through a developmental analysis of cricket that focuses on historical class relations and Imperial relations in the Caribbean and Indian subcontinent.

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Andrew M. Edwards and Raewyn E. Walker

The efficacy of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) has been the subject of considerable controversy in terms of whether it is beneficial to endurance athletes and because a convincing physiological rationale has not been identified to explain its mechanism of action. Early studies suggested that IMT was an ineffectual intervention for gains in either maximal aerobic power or endurance-specific performance. More rigorous recent research supports the observation that maximal aerobic power is not receptive to IMT; however, closer evaluation of both early and contemporary research indicates that responses to endurance-specific performance tests are sensitive to IMT. As the aim of endurance training is to improve endurance performance rather than maximal aerobic power, it is plausible that IMT may be useful in specific performance-related circumstances. Performance adaptations following IMT appear to be connected with post training reports of attenuated effort sensations, but this common observation has tended to be overlooked by researchers in preference for a reductionist explanation. This commentary examines the pertinent research and practical performance implications of IMT from the holistic perspective of complex central metabolic control.

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Maya Maor

as a locus of hegemonic masculinity, and that sports are a central site for bullying and other forms of the POM of adolescent boys today ( Levy, Hollander, & Noy-Canyon, 2016 ; Spencer, 2012 ; Steinfeldt, Vaughan, LaFollette, & Steinfeldt, 2012 ). “Hazing” originally referred to a combination of

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Miguel Camões, Andreia Oliveira and Carla Lopes

Objective:

Evaluate the role of different types of physical activity (PA) and diet on overall and central obesity incidence.

Methods:

A cohort study with 1621 adults was conducted in an urban Portuguese population. Anthropometrics were objectively obtained during 1999−2003 and 2005−2008. Overall, obesity was defined by a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m2 and central obesity by a waist circumference (WC) > 88.0 cm in women and >102.0 cm in men. Usual PA and dietary intake were assessed using validated questionnaires. Analyses of obesity incidence were conducted through different types of PA and a “healthy” dietary score.

Results:

Significant inverse associations were found between leisure-time PA and obesity incidence, namely among subjects classified into the last tertile of energy expenditure, who had approximately a 40% lower risk of developing the disease. Despite higher energy intakes, individuals with a high Physical Activity Level (PAL > 1.60) were significantly protected against obesity incidence, relative risks (RR) = 0.25 (0.09−0.72) and RR = 0.47(0.27−0.94), for overall and central obesity, respectively. No significant associations were found between dietary score and obesity incidence rates.

Conclusions:

In our population, leisure-time PA played a significant role in preventing obesity. In both overall and central obesity, PAL above 60% of the resting metabolic rate and moderate energy intake seem to strike the right balance to prevent obesity.

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Niamh Reilly, Gavin P. Lawrence, Thomas Mottram and Michael Khan

The perceptual-motor impairments of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) are attributed to central (e.g., neurophysiology deficits that affect the retrieval or initiation of motor programs) and peripheral (e.g., anatomical deficits relating to issues with inertia of limb mechanics and muscle organization) processes. However, recent research suggests that central deficits do not affect the integration between movements. We investigate the impact of central and peripheral DS deficits on movement integration by examining the planning and execution of multiple-target multiple-arm movements. Individuals with DS, typically developing (TD), and individuals with an undifferentiated intellectual disability (UID) completed five aiming tasks: a one target; a one-arm, two-target extension; a two-arm, two-target extension (movement one was performed with one arm and movement two performed with the other); a one-arm, two-target reversal; and a two-arm, two-target reversal. Movement times (MTs) to the first target were longer in the two-target tasks compared with the one-target task. For the one-arm, two-target reversal task, this effect emerged only in individuals with DS. These results indicate that individuals with DS use central processing for movement integration similarly to their TD and UID counterparts but cannot exploit peripheral-level integration to enhance integration in one-arm reversal tasks.