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Dhinu J. Jayaseelan, Cesar Fernandez-de-las-Penas, Taylor Blattenberger, and Dean Bonneau

—for example, corticosteroid injections or extracorporeal shockwave therapy—are mainly based on localized interventions targeting the foot and/or ankle. 4 Local treatments mainly target peripheral (localized) nociceptive input, although an indirect effect on the central nervous system is also feasible. If

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Neal R. Glaviano and Grant E. Norte

(SIB) technique is a method commonly used to assess muscle inhibition, quantified by the central activation ratio (CAR). 26 The CAR is a ratio of volitional motor neuron recruitment relative to all available motor neurons for a muscle of interest. Gluteal CAR has acceptable between-session reliability

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Michael L. Naraine, Jessie Schenk, and Milena M. Parent

This paper sought to examine the stakeholder network governance structures of two international and two domestic multisports events focusing on (a) exploring the structural connectedness of these networks and (b) illuminating powerful stakeholders vis-à-vis centrality and the ability to control the network’s flow. An exploratory, comparative case study design was built by means of 58 interviews and 550 archival materials. Findings highlight international sports events are sparsely connected networks with power concentrated in the organizing committee, government, and venue stakeholders, who broker coordination with other stakeholders. In contrast, domestic sport event organizing committees appear more decentralized as coordinating actors: Sport organizations, sponsors, and community-based stakeholders emerged as highly connected, powerful stakeholders. Domestic event governance decentralization highlights a potential imbalance in stakeholder interests through network flow control by multiple actors, while the governments’ centrality in international events demonstrates not only mode-dependent salience but also visibility/reputational risks and jurisdictional responsibilities-based salience.

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Hyung Jin Kim and Chanam Lee

Background:

A public elementary school has traditionally functioned as an important center of a neighborhood, but this role has diminished with sprawling urban developments. Despite the large number of studies of children’s walking to/from school (WTS), the school’s location in relation to the larger neighborhood context has not been fully explored. This study is to examine the relationship between school’s spatial centrality and children’s WTS in urban, suburban and rural settings.

Methods:

this study used school travel tally (11,721 students), environment audit, GIS and census data from 71 elementary school/neighborhoods in Texas, and employed the closeness centrality index to estimate a school’s spatial centrality. Data were collected from 2009–2012.

Results:

After controlling for neighborhood characteristics, it was found that more centrally located schools are likely to have higher proportions of WTS in the neighborhoods. And, among urban, suburban and rural settings, urban schools were the most and rural schools were the least likely to be centrally-located in the neighborhoods.

Conclusions:

The findings offer implications on school and community planning policies that can help promote WTS. Spatial centrality measures can be effective tools to identify environmental factors in complex urban networks related to human behaviors and community-based activities.

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Daniel Gilfeather, Grant Norte, Christopher D. Ingersoll, and Neal R. Glaviano

assessments alone. 11 , 12 One outcome that has been used to evaluate muscle function is the central activation ratio (CAR), assessed by the SIBT. CAR has previously been utilized in research as a way to measure the volitional activation of the quadriceps in a variety of pathologies. 13 – 15 The CAR is a

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Jônatas Augusto Cursiol, Tarine Botta de Arruda, Fábio Yuzo Nakamura, and Ricardo Augusto Barbieri

). Isometric maximal voluntary contractions (IMVC; Cairns et al., 2005 ) and percentage of VA through the twitch interpolation (TI) technique are standardized methods that allow the verification of impairments in contractile function (peripheral fatigue) and/or in the ability of the central nervous system to

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John C. Phillips

Earlier work (Phillips, 1983) showed limited or no progress in the accessibility of central positions (catcher, shortstop, second base) to black professional baseball aspirants. A closer examination of the data reveals an interesting change during the past two decades. Blacks came to appear in numbers at second base in the mid-1970s and at shortstop during the 1976-1986 decade, but this progress was obscured when the three central positions were combined. Separation of the three positions reveals a clear pattern of progress in accessibility, first at second base, the least central of the central positions, then at shortstop, but not yet at catcher, the most central position. Another pattern of discrimination, exclusion of weak-hitting black players in favor of weak-hitting white players, seems to have disappeared. Some theoretical and practical implications of this apparent decline in discrimination are discussed.

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John V. Basmajian

In the symphony of neuromotor performance, the muscles are the powerful woodwinds, the ligaments are the essential string section, and the central nervous system both writes and conducts the performance. Electromyography (EMG) has provided the platform and technology in the past half century to bring appreciation of the superb functions of all the parts of the healthy body in concert. This broad “review” provides vignettes of many aspects of motor controls in the upper and lower limbs explored with EMG by the author and his students.

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Dominic Malcolm

This paper examines the phenomenon of stacking in the sport of cricket. It is argued that cricket is a particularly revealing case study of “race” relations in Britain because of the diversity of “racial” groups that play it and the variety of national identities that are expressed through it. Data presented show that the two minority “racial” groups in British cricket are stacked in different positions; Asians as high-status batters, and Blacks as low-status bowlers (pitchers). The author uses the work of Norbert Elias to argue that stacking can best be explained, not in terms of positional centrality, but through a developmental analysis of cricket that focuses on historical class relations and Imperial relations in the Caribbean and Indian subcontinent.

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Maya Maor

as a locus of hegemonic masculinity, and that sports are a central site for bullying and other forms of the POM of adolescent boys today ( Levy, Hollander, & Noy-Canyon, 2016 ; Spencer, 2012 ; Steinfeldt, Vaughan, LaFollette, & Steinfeldt, 2012 ). “Hazing” originally referred to a combination of