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Peter S. Myers, Kerri S. Rawson, Elinor C. Harrison, Adam P. Horin, Ellen N. Sutter, Marie E. McNeely, and Gammon M. Earhart

suggests freezing of gait involves dysfunction of the cerebellum, 7 – 9 and the cerebellum is integral to coordinating joints during movement. 10 Individuals with cerebellar dysfunction exhibit gait ataxia (ie, altered intralimb joint coordination). 11 To mitigate this symptom, individuals with

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Hanneke I. van Mier, Joel S. Perlmutter, and Steven E. Petersen

In the present study, brain activations were measured using positron emission tomography (PET) over the course of practice. Fourteen right-handed participants were scanned during six 1-min periods of practice tracing a cutout maze design with their eyes closed. Practice-related decreases were found in the right premotor and posterior parietal cortex and left cerebellum, increases in the supplementary motor area (SMA) and primary motor cortex. The decrease in right premotor activity and the increase in SMA was significantly correlated with a decrease in the number of stops, implying involvement in learning and storing the movement sequence. The significant correlation between decreases in errors and left cerebellar and right posterior parietal activity suggests a role in accuracy. Involvement of the primary motor cortex in motor execution is suggested by the correlation of increased activation and movement speed. These results suggest that different neural structures (involving a premotor-parietal-cerebellar circuit) play a role in a sequential maze learning task.

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Yu-Ting Tseng, Sanaz Khosravani, Arash Mahnan, and Jürgen Konczak

This review addresses the role of exercise as an intervention for treating neurological disease. It focuses on three major neurological diseases that either present in acute or neurodegenerative forms—Parkinson’s disease, cerebellar ataxia, and cortical stroke. Each of the diseases affects primarily different brain structures, namely the basal ganglia, the cerebellum, and the cerebrum. These structures are all known to be involved in motor control, and the dysfunction of each structure leads to distinct movement deficits. The review summarizes current knowledge on how exercise can aid rehabilitation or therapeutic efforts. In addition, it addresses the role of robotic devices in enhancing available therapies by reviewing how robot-aided therapies may promote the recovery for stroke survivors. It highlights recent scientific evidence in support of exercise as a treatment for brain dysfunction, but also outlines the still open challenges for unequivocally demonstrating the benefits of exercise.

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Edwin M. Robertson

The concept of canonical representations within the motor system has been both supported and refuted using a variety of behavioral studies. Here, based upon neurophysiological data, I discuss the relationship amongst those neuronal substrates of action and the behavioral components of a movement. A novel view of reaching and grasping has been proposed which predicts that movements with similar kinematic and dynamic properties have a similar representation within the nervous system (Smeets & Brenner, 1999). However this is broadly inconsistent with a variety of neurophysiological findings that emphasize the independence amongst representations of action.

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Daniel Bullock

Calligraphic writing presents many challenges for motor control, including: learning and recall of stroke sequences; critical timing of stroke onsets and durations; fine control of grip and contact forces; and letterform invariance under size scaling, which entails fine control of stroke directions and amplitudes during recruitment and derecruitment of musculoskeletal degrees of freedom. Experimental and computational studies in behavioral neuroscience have progressed toward explaining the learning, planning, and control exercised in tasks that share features with calligraphic writing and drawing. This article highlights component operations ranging from parallel sequence representations to fine force control. Treated in succession are: competitive queuing models of sequence representation, performance, learning, and recall; letter size scaling and motor equivalence; cursive handwriting models in which sensory-motor transformations are performed by circuits that learn inverse differential kinematic mappings; and fine-grained control of timing and transient forces by circuit models that learn to solve inverse dynamics problems.

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Jeroen B.J. Smeets and Eli Brenner

We agree with Robertson that our new view on grasping is a description of motor behavior rather than an exploration into the nature of the neural processing underlying this behavior. However, neurophysiologists might be inspired by our new view to ask other questions, perform other experiments, and analyze these differently. In this way, they could generate new insights about the neural control of grasping.

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Kim D. Barber Foss, Alexis B. Slutsky-Ganesh, Jed A. Diekfuss, Dustin R. Grooms, Janet E. Simon, Daniel K. Schneider, Neeru Jayanthi, Joseph D. Lamplot, Destin Hill, Mathew Pombo, Philip Wong, David A. Reiter, and Gregory D. Myer

the entire sample, t (13) = 2.99, P  = .003 and t (13) = 2.21, P  = .006, respectively. Overall Task-Evoked Activation During the modified Clarke test, there was greater activation in 7 clusters, which had peak activation over the: left central and frontal opercular cortices; left cerebellum I to

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Rafael Gnat, Agata Dziewońska, Maciej Biały, and Martyna Wieczorek

voxels of significantly increased activity during IA. They include different regions of the cerebellum, bilaterally (Clusters 3–4 in the Table  3 , Sections 1–4 in the Panel A, Figure  5a [white frame]); basal ganglia area, bilaterally (Cluster 1, Sections 5–7); cortical areas in the upper part of the

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Mohammad Moniruzzaman, Aya Kadota, Akihiko Shiino, Akira Fujiyoshi, Takahiro Ito, Ali Haidar Syaifullah, Naoko Miyagawa, Keiko Kondo, Takashi Hisamatsu, Hiroyoshi Segawa, Ikuo Tooyama, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Katsuyuki Miura, and for the SESSA Research Group

) related to cognition (prefrontal cortex, cingulum, hippocampus, parahippocampal, entorhinal cortex, and cerebellum). Materials and Methods Participants and Sample Size The Shiga Epidemiological Study of Subclinical Atherosclerosis (SESSA) is an ongoing population-based observational study conducted in

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Brian D. Seiler, Eva V. Monsma, Roger Newman-Norlund, and Ryan Sacko

  Middle X   Superior X   Posterior X  Motor areas   Supplementary motor area X X X X   Premotor cortex X   Primary motor cortex X   Precentral gyrus X X X   Postcentral gyrus X  Precuneus X X  Middle cingulum X  Putamen X  Cerebellum X X  Thalamus X  Insular cortex X X  Cingulate cortex X Three activation