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Karen L. Perell, Robert J. Gregor and A.M. Erika Scremin

Biomechanical analysis of the generalized muscle moment and power patterns involved in cycling provides information regarding coordination within each limb. The purpose of this study was to compare individual joint kinetics, bilaterally, in subjects who had experienced cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Two-dimensional cinematography and force pedal data in a linked-segment model were used to study 8 ambulatory subjects while they rode a recumbent bicycle. The involved lower limb was defined as the lower limb with the greatest deficits, whereas the contralateral lower limb was defined as the lower limb opposite the involved lower limb and ipsilateral to the lesion site. The contralateral lower limbs of subjects with CVAs demonstrated patterns similar to those reported for nondisabled cyclists on an upright bicycle except for a bimodal hip power generation pattern that was possibly due to compensation for a lack of involved lower limb power generation. There were two critical findings of this study: Single-joint power generation patterns during the power phase indicated that either the hip or the knee, but not both joints, generated power in the involved lower limb, and asymmetrical differences between lower limbs appeared significant at the ankle alone.

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Karen L. Perell, Robert J. Gregor and A.M. Erika Scremin

The purpose of this sludy was to compare individual pedal reaclion force components following bicycle training with and without effective force feedback in subjects with unilateral cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Eight ambulatory subjects with CVA were studied on a recumbent bicycle equipped with custom-built pedals, which measure normal and tangential components of the load applied to the pedal surface. Comparisons of normal and tangential pedal reaction forces were made following 1 month of bicycle training (3 times/week for 4 weeks) during retention tests performed without feedback. The ratios of involved to contralateral (I/C ratios) force parameters were used to assess symmetry. Subjects were randomly assigned to 2 groups: (a) a feedback group that received visual/verbal feedback regarding effective force patterns, bilaterally, after each trial; and (b) a no-feedback group dial received no feedback. Two critical results were found: (a) tangential pedal forces were significantly more posteriorly directed bilaterally following training across all subjects, but the change was greater for the no-feedback group relative to the feedback group, and (b) effective force feedback training did not demonstrate improvements in the I/C ratios above that of the control group. A more posteriorly applied tangential pedal force may represent increased dorsiflexion and may suggest that bicycle training facilitated ankle control. The cyclical nature of cycling, however, may allow for natural patterns to develop without feedback or may require less frequent use of feedback based on retention test performance.

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Christine M. Tallon, Ryan G. Simair, Alyssa V. Koziol, Philip N. Ainslie and Alison M. McManus

children ( 14 ). Strengths and Limitations Strengths of this study include the use of a cross-over study design and the HIIE and MISS protocols were created to ensure equivalent total external work completed by participants. This study is also strengthened by the assessment of recovery cerebrovascular data

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Karen L. Perell, Robert J. Gregor and A.M. Erika Scremin

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bicycle exercise on knee-muscle strength and gait speed in 8 male participants with cerebrovascular accident (CVA). Isokinetic knee-extensor and -flexor strength were measured in both concentric- and eccentric-contraction modes. Fifty-foot walking tests were used for gait speed. After only 4 weeks of stationary recumbent cycling (12 sessions), participants improved eccentric muscle strength of the knee extensors, bilaterally. Walking-speed improvements approached but did not achieve significance with training. Improvement in concentric muscle strength of the knee extensors was observed in the involved limb, although most participants demonstrated a nonsignificant increase in muscle strength in the contralateral limb, as well. No improvements were demonstrated in the knee-flexor muscles. Thus, bicycle exercise serves to improve knee-extensor strength. In addition, these strength improvements might have implications for better control of walking in terms of bilateral improvement of eccentric muscle strength.

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Jaakko Kaprio and Seppo Sarna

Occupational disability was investigated in former Finnish athletes in the Olympic Games, World or European championships, or intercountry competitions during 1920–1965 (N = 2,402 men) for eight selected sports. The referents were 1,712 men selected from the Finnish conscription register, matched on age and area of residence and classified as completely healthy. The first outcome measure was the length of working life based on the age when the subject was granted a disability pension, or age at death before age 65. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of mean working life expectancy was 61.4 years for endurance sport athletes, 60.0 years for team games athletes, and 59.2 years for power sport competitors, compared with 57.6 years for the reference group. Decreased coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular and respiratory morbidity were observed for all athletes when compared with the referent group. It was concluded that sustained and vigorous physical activity during early adulthood may extend the occupationally active life span and defer the onset of disability before retirement age.

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

laboratory-based injuries to the brain were observed from contusion and stretch type injuries, which resulted in damage to Nissl bodies, chromatolysis, diffuse myelin sheath disruption, and cerebrovascular dysfunction ( Windle, Groat, & Fox, 1946 ). Early attempts at establishing brain–behavior relationships

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Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen

or more per session, three times or more a week, and for more than 3 months.) Participants were excluded if they suffered from cerebrovascular disease; musculoskeletal system disease; or another condition with a contraindication to sports; had a history of stroke; or had a communication disorder. The

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Ina M. Tarkka, Pekka Hautasaari, Heidi Pesonen, Eini Niskanen, Mirva Rottensteiner, Jaakko Kaprio, Andrej M. Savić and Urho M. Kujala

may provide a substantial source of neurodegeneration. Ostergaard et al 30 elegantly suggest that capillary dysfunction is part of the cause, both in cerebrovascular stroke and cognitive decline, even though there are considerable differences in etiologies of these syndromes and in their clinical

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Esther Casas, Arturo Justes and Carlos Calvo

joint and in all possible positions it can adopt. In rehabilitation of severe CNS pathological conditions, such as cerebral palsy or cerebrovascular accidents, different reflex methods (Vöjta 1 and Brunkow 2 methods) have been used to facilitate muscle activity. These methods achieve coordinated