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Patricia A. Hageman, Carol H. Pullen and Michael Yoerger

also examines physical performance measures (400-m walk and timed chair stands) that are objective indicators of physical function. The research targets an understudied population of rural Midwestern women who have documented health disparities, and who are considered a designated priority population

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Michelle Gray, Sally Paulson and Melissa Powers

The aim of this investigation was to determine the relationship between usual and maximal walking velocities with measures of functional fitness (FF). Fifty-seven older adults (78.2 ± 6.6 years) were recruited from a local retirement community. All participants completed the following assessments: 10-m usual and maximal walk, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), 6-min walk (6MW), 8-foot up-and-go (UPGO), and 30-s chair stand. Based on their SPPB performance, low (≤ 9) and high (≥ 10) FF groups were formed. Among all participants, maximal walking velocity, not usual walking velocity, was significantly correlated with SPPB (r = .35; p < .05 and r = .19; p > .05, respectively). In the high functioning group, both maximal and usual walking velocities were correlated, but correlation coefficients were stronger for all variables for maximal walking velocity. These results suggest different walking conditions may be necessary to use for high and low functioning older adults; specifically, maximal walking velocity may be a preferred measure among high functioning older adults.

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Cody L. Sipe, Kevin D. Ramey, Phil P. Plisky and James D. Taylor

Scale; TUG test = timed up and go test; 8UG test = 8-foot up and go test; CST = 30-s chair stand test. Measures All procedures were administered by trained investigators following completion of the informed consent process, dementia screening using the Mini-Mental Status Examination, and the measurement

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Chris Hopkins

, and a chair stand test. Short walk tests, such as the 20-m walk test is commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess gait speed, which has significant clinical significance as slower gait speeds are associated with increased fall risk ( Cromwell & Newton, 2004 ; Ness, Gurney, & Ice, 2003

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Seung-uk Ko, Gerald J. Jerome, Eleanor M. Simonsick and Luigi Ferrucci

represents unable to walk one quarter of a mile and 9 indicates that walking 1 mile is very easy ( Simonsick et al., 2018 ; Simonsick, Schrack, Glynn, & Ferrucci, 2014 ). Time (in seconds) for completing five chair stands was also assessed ( McCarthy, Horvat, Holtsberg, & Wisenbaker, 2004 ). Statistical

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Élvio R. Gouveia, Andreas Ihle, Bruna R. Gouveia, Matthias Kliegel, Adilson Marques and Duarte L. Freitas

legs ( Kim et al., 2002 ; see Gouveia et al., 2014 for a more detailed description). Muscle Strength In terms of upper body strength, MS was assessed using the arm curl test and lower body strength using the chair stand test ( Rikli & Jones, 1999 ). The arm curl test requires people to repeatedly

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Odessa Addison, Monica C. Serra, Leslie Katzel, Jamie Giffuni, Cathy C. Lee, Steven Castle, Willy M. Valencia, Teresa Kopp, Heather Cammarata, Michelle McDonald, Kris A. Oursler, Chani Jain, Janet Prvu Bettger, Megan Pearson, Kenneth M. Manning, Orna Intrator, Peter Veazie, Richard Sloane, Jiejin Li and Miriam C. Morey

walk with a self-selected gait speed ( Middleton, Fritz, & Lusardi, 2015 ), (b) 6-min walk distance ( ATS Committee on Proficiency Standards for Clinical Pulmonary Function Laboratories, 2002 ), (c) number of chair stands completed in 30 s ( Rikli & Jones, 2013 ), and (d) time to complete the 8-foot up

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Christie L. Ward, Rudy J. Valentine and Ellen M. Evans

Adiposity, lean mass, and physical activity (PA) are known to influence physical function in older adults, although the independent influences are not completely characterized. Older adults (N = 156, M age = 68.9 ± 6.7 yr, 85 men) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, PA by accelerometer, and physical function via timed up-and-go (UP&GO), 30-s chair stand, 6-min walk (6-min WALK), and Star-Excursion Balance Test. In the absence of percentage-body-fat by PA interactions (p > .05), main effects existed such that a higher percentage body fat was associated with poorer performance in UP&GO, 30-s chair stand, and 6-min WALK (p < .05). No significant main effects were found for PA and functional performance. Adiposity explains 4.6–11.4% in physical functional variance (p < .05). Preventing increases in adiposity with age may help older adults maintain functional independence.

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Marlana J. Kohn, Basia Belza, Miruna Petrescu-Prahova, Christina E. Miyawaki and Katherine H. Hohman

This study examined participant demographic and physical function characteristics from EnhanceFitness, an evidence-based physical activity program for older adults. The sample consisted of 19,964 older adults. Participant data included self-reported health and demographic variables, and results for three physical function tests: chair stand, arm curls, and timed up-and-go. Linear regression models compared physical function test results among eight program site types. Participants were, on average, 72 years old, predominantly female, and reported having one chronic condition. Residential site participants’ physical function test results were significantly poorer on chair stand and timed up-and-go measures at baseline, and timed up-and-go at a four-month follow-up compared with the reference group (senior centers) after controlling for demographic variables and site clustering. Evidence-based health-promotion programs offered in community settings should assess demographic, health, and physical function characteristics to best serve participants’ specific needs, and offer classes tailored to participant function and ability while maintaining program fidelity.

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Wolfram Haslinger, Lisa Müller, Nejc Sarabon, Christian Raschner, Helmut Kern and Stefan Löfler

Objective:

To determine the effectiveness of exercise in improving sensorimotor function and functional performance, crucial parts of activities of daily living in healthy older adults.

Design:

RCT.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

39 subjects (M = 71.8 years, range: 61–89 years).

Intervention:

Task-oriented visual feedback balance training.

Primary outcome measure:

Timed Up & Go (TUG).

Secondary outcome measures:

Chair stand test (CST), self-paced walk test, maximum isometric torque, quiet stand posturography, and dynamic balance (DB).

Results:

Postintervention comparison of the treatment group (TG) and control group (CG) showed better TUG (p < .01), CST (p < .001), and DB (p < .025) for the TG. Pre–post intervention comparison of the TG showed better clinically-relevant outcomes in TUG (p < .001), CST (p < .001), and DB (p < .001).

Conclusion:

Active driven visual feedback balance training is effective in improving functional performance and dynamic balance in older adults.