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Ian D. Boardley, Ben Jackson and Alexander Simmons

This research aimed to investigate (a) the effect of golfers’ perceptions of coach motivation efficacy on golfers’ precompetition task self-efficacy, (b) the effect of performance on pre-to-postround changes in self-efficacy, (c) the effect of pre-to-postround changes in self-efficacy on pre-to-postround changes in affect and emotion, and (d) whether any effects of performance on pre-to-postcompetition changes in affect and emotion were mediated by pre-to-postcompetition changes in self-efficacy. In Study 1, a scale measuring golf self-efficacy was developed and validated using data from 197 golfers. In Study 2, 200 golfers completed this measure alongside measures of coach motivation efficacy, and positive and negative affect before a golf competition; all measures (except coach motivation efficacy) were again completed following the competition. Structural equation modeling showed that coach motivation efficacy positively predicted precompetition self-efficacy, performance positively predicted pre-to-postcompetition changes in self-efficacy, which had positive and negative effects, respectively, on pre-to-postcompetition changes in positive and negative affect; mediation analyses demonstrated that pre-to-postcompetition changes in self-efficacy mediated effects of performance on pre-to-postcompetition changes in positive and negative affect. In Study 3, the Study-2 procedures were replicated with a separate sample of 212 golfers, except measures of excitement, concentration disruption, somatic anxiety, and worry replaced those for positive and negative affect. Structural analyses showed the findings from Study 2 were largely replicated when specific emotions were investigated in place of general indices of affect. This investigation makes novel contributions regarding the potential importance of perceptions of coach efficacy for golfers’ own efficacy beliefs, and the role personal efficacy beliefs may play in facilitating the effects of performance on affective outcomes.

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Jesse C. Christensen, Caitlin J. Miller, Ryan D. Burns and Hugh S. West

further research is needed comparing the effectiveness of outpatient PT visits following ACLR with and without meniscal repair surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the relationship between PT visits and patient-reported outcome change scores from baseline to discharge from outpatient

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Kelly A. Brock, Lindsey E. Eberman, Richard H. Laird IV, David J. Elmer and Kenneth E. Games

compared with rest. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a single SPC treatment on lower-extremity hemoglobin concentration in healthy participants. Methods Research Design We utilized a single cohort, repeated-measures design to analyze the change scores between

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Rebecca M. Dagger, Ian G. Davies, Kelly A. Mackintosh, Genevieve L. Stone, Keith P. George, Stuart J. Fairclough and Lynne M. Boddy

measures, and VO 2peak between participants in the intervention and control groups at each time point were assessed using multivariate analysis of covariance with somatic maturation, IMD, and sex as covariates. Change scores between baseline and postintervention and baseline and follow-up were calculated

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Rebecca A. Schlaff, Meghan Baruth, Faith C. LaFramboise and Samantha J. Deere

in any MVPA and (2) meeting recommendations (at least 150 min of MVPA per week) at each time point. To examine changes in MVPA participation from prepregnancy through the postpartum period, the following change scores (minutes of change from one time point to another) were calculated: (1) third

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Sajad Bagherian, Khodayar Ghasempoor, Nader Rahnama and Erik A. Wikstrom

for poor-quality movers (Table  2 ). Although the average change scores and ESs were larger in the poor movement quality group, the associated 95% confidence intervals of all variables overlap suggesting comparable effects on functional movement quality and dynamic postural control regardless of an

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Craig Donnachie, Kate Hunt, Nanette Mutrie, Jason M.R. Gill and Paul Kelly

pre- and post-intervention. Spearman’s rank-order correlation coefficients (ρ) were used to assess relationships between change scores for device-based ( activ PAL3 ™ ) and self-report (IPAQ) instruments, interpreted as weak (<0.3), low (0.30–0.49), moderate (0.50–0.69), strong (0.70–0.89), or very

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Hayley M. Ericksen, Caitlin Lefevre, Brittney A. Luc-Harkey, Abbey C. Thomas, Phillip A. Gribble and Brian Pietrosimone

vGRF and Vert max ). Independent samples t tests were performed to compare demographics between groups. The 2 groups were similar in peak vGRF ( P  = .19) and Vert max ( P  = .73) at baseline. We used change scores (post–pre) from baseline for peak vGRF and Vert max in the final analysis to

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Jamie Zoellner, Carol Connell, Alicia Powers, Amanda Avis-Williams, Kathy Yadrick and Margaret L. Bogle

Background:

Race/ethnic-specific physical activity patterns and biological responses to physical activity is one of the most understudied, yet critical aspects related to the development and adoption of physical activity recommendations.

Methods:

In this 6-month community walking intervention targeting African Americans, participants wore a pedometer and maintained a pedometer diary for the study duration. Outcome measures included height, weight, percent body fat, waist circumference, blood pressure, lipids and glucose. ANOVA, Pearson Correlations, and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to examine changes in steps/day over each month of the intervention and explore associations among pedometer-determined physical activity and anthropometric/biological change scores from month 1 to 6.

Results:

The 83 participants were primarily African American (98%) women (94%). There was a significant increase in the average step/day beginning with 6665 (SD = 3,396) during month 1 and increasing to 9232 (SD = 3670) steps/day during month 6 (F = 4.5, P < .0001). Associations among step counts and anthropometric/biological change scores were not significant.

Conclusions:

While this intervention resulted in significant increases in steps/day; it exemplifies that physical activity standards may be unachievable for some vulnerable, minority communities. Methodological considerations for exploring associations between changes in pedometer-determined step counts and anthropometric/biological outcomes are emphasized through this study.

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You Fu, Zan Gao, James C. Hannon, Ryan D. Burns and Timothy A. Brusseau Jr.

Background:

This study aimed to examine the effect of a 9-week SPARK program on physical activity (PA), cardiorespiratory endurance (Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run; PACER), and motivation in middle-school students.

Methods:

174 students attended baseline and posttests and change scores computed for each outcome. A MANOVA was employed to examine change score differences using follow-up ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc tests.

Results:

MANOVA yielded a significant interaction for Grade × Gender × Group (Wilks’s Λ = 0.89, P < .001). ANOVA for PA revealed significant differences between SPARK grades 6 and 7 (Mean Δ = 8.11, P < .01) and Traditional grades 6 and 8 (Mean Δ = –6.96, P < .01). ANOVA also revealed greater PACER change for Traditional boys in grade 8 (P < .01) and SPARK girls in grade 8 (P < .01). There were significant interactions with perceived competence differences between SPARK grades 6 and 8 (Mean Δ = 0.38, P < .05), Enjoyment differences between SPARK grades 6 and 7 (Mean Δ = 0.67, P < .001), and SPARK grades 6 and 8 (Mean Δ = 0.81, P < .001).

Conclusions:

Following the intervention, SPARK displayed greater increases on PA and motivation measures in younger students compared with the Traditional program.