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Eleanor B. Tate, Anuja Shah, Malia Jones, Mary Ann Pentz, Yue Liao and Genevieve Dunton

Background:

Research on adolescent physical activity is mixed regarding the role of parent activity. This study tested parent encouragement, direct modeling, and perceived influence as moderators of objectively-measured (accelerometer) parent and child moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) associations.

Methods:

Parent-child dyads (n = 423; mean child age = 11.33 yrs.) wore accelerometers for 7 days; parents completed surveys. Hierarchical linear regression models tested moderation using a product of constituent terms interaction.

Results:

Parent-reported encouragement moderated the association between parent and child MVPA (β = –.15, P = .01, ΔR 2 = .02, P < .01). Among parents with lower MVPA, child MVPA was higher for children receiving high encouragement (mean = 3.06, SE = .17) vs. low (mean = 3.03, SE = .15, P = .02) and moderate encouragement (mean = 3.40, SE = .09) vs. low (P = .04).

Conclusions:

Physical activity promotion programs may use parent encouragement as a tool to boost child activity, but must consider other child and parent characteristics that could attenuate effects.

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Meenakshi Maria Fernandes and Roland Sturm

Background:

Physical activity at school can support obesity prevention among youth. This paper assesses the role of existing school physical activity programs for a national cohort from first grade to fifth grade.

Methods:

We analyzed a cohort from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey—Kindergarten Cohort which included 8246 children in 970 schools across the country. Growth curve models estimate the effect of physical education (PE) and recess on individual child body mass trajectories controlling for child and school characteristics. Hierarchical models allow for unobserved school and child effects.

Results:

Among first graders, 7.0% met the National Association of Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recommended time for PE and 70.7% met the recommended time for recess in the previous week. Boys experienced a greater increase in body mass than girls. Meeting the NASPE recommended time for recess was associated with a 0.74 unit decrease in BMI (body mass index) percentile for children overall. Meeting the NASPE recommendation for physical education was associated with 1.56 unit decrease in BMI percentile among boys but not girls.

Conclusions:

We find evidence that meeting the national recommendations for PE and recess is effective in mitigating body mass increase among children.

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Gary S. Goldfield

Objective:

To compare liking and other attitudes toward physical activity (PA) and television (TV) viewing versus PA behavior and time viewing TV at baseline as predictors of response to lifestyle intervention in 30, 8 to 12 year old overweight/obese children.

Method:

Secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial designed to increase PA and reduce sedentary behavior. PA was measured by accelerometers worn by participants every day for 8 weeks. TV viewing at baseline and during intervention was assessed by self-report.

Results:

Multiple regression analyses showed that base rates of PA and TV viewing significantly predicted changes in PA (Beta = .39, P < .05) and TV viewing (Beta = .37, P < .05) during the intervention, even after statistically controlling for child age, gender, body mass index, as well as baseline attitudes and liking of PA and TV viewing. However, self-reported liking of TV viewing and PA, perceived adequacy, and predilection were not predictive of response to intervention.

Conclusions:

Baseline measure of PA and TV viewing behaviors may be better predictors of response to lifestyle intervention than measure of liking and other attitudinal variables of PA. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

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Lanay M. Mudd, Jim M. Pivarnik, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Nigel Paneth, Hwan Chung and Claudia Holzman

Background:

We sought to evaluate the effects of maternal leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy and current child LTPA on child weight status.

Methods:

Women with term pregnancies in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (1998–2004) were followed-up. A race-stratified subset of participants (cohort A) received extensive follow-up efforts leading to better response rates (592/926 = 64%) and diversity. The remainder (Cohort B) had a lower response rate (418/1629 = 26%). Women reported child height, weight and LTPA at 3 to 9 years (inactive vs. active), and recalled pregnancy LTPA (inactive vs. active). A 4-category maternal/child LTPA variable was created (reference: active pregnancy + active child). Children were classified as healthy weight, overweight, or obese using age- and sex-specific Body Mass Index percentiles. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of child obesity (reference: healthy weight).

Results:

In unadjusted analyses, pregnancy inactivity increased odds for obesity when the child was active (1.6 [95% CI, 1.0−2.6] in Cohort A; 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1−4.0] in Cohort B), and more so when the child was inactive (2.4 [95% CI, 1.2−4.9] in Cohort A; 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0−8.8] in Cohort B). Adjustment for covariates attenuated results to statistical nonsignificance but the direction of relations remained.

Conclusions:

Maternal inactivity during pregnancy may contribute to child obesity risk.

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Ayse Meydanlioglu and Ayse Ergun

.1186/1479-5868-4-47 17. Hoelscher DM , Kelder SH , Perez A , et al . Changes in the regional prevalence of child obesity in 4th, 8th, and 11th grade students in Texas from 2000–2002 to 2004–2005 . Obesity . 2010 ; 18 ( 7 ): 1360 – 1368 . PubMed ID: 19798066 doi:10.1038/oby.2009.305 19798066 10.1038/oby.2009

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Marissa A. Kobayashi, Tae Kyoung Lee, Rafael O. Leite, Blanca Noriega Esquives, Guillermo Prado, Sarah E. Messiah and Sara M. St. George

A . Influence of stress in parents on child obesity and related behaviors . Pediatrics . 2012 ; 130 ( 5 ): e1096 – 1104 . PubMed ID: 23090343 doi:10.1542/peds.2012-0895 10.1542/peds.2012-0895 23090343 9. Koch FS , Sepa A , Ludvigsson J . Psychological stress and obesity . J Pediatr

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Sharon E. Taverno Ross

target this behavior should be a priority in addressing the Latino child obesity disparity. Physical Activity in Latino Preschool Children Physical activity is associated with long-term benefits for health ( Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report Subcommittee of the President

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Oren Tirosh, Guy Orland, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Nili Steinberg

a rigid and wobbling mass to the lower limb, 25 the suggestion that obesity may lower the attenuation of force is, at best, speculative. To our knowledge, no one has described shock attenuation in overweight children runners, despite the dramatic growth in the prevalence of child obesity and the

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Katherine L. Downing, Jo Salmon, Anna Timperio, Trina Hinkley, Dylan P. Cliff, Anthony D. Okely and Kylie D. Hesketh

common positive correlates were sibling coparticipation in electronic games, maternal logistic support for TV viewing, and maternal praise/encouragement for playing electronic games. Child obesity, child preferences for sedentary behaviors over physical activities, parental self-efficacy to support

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Chien-Chih Chou, Kuan-Chou Chen, Mei-Yao Huang, Hsin-Yu Tu and Chung-Ju Huang

. ( 2017 ). A systematic examination of the association between parental and child obesity across countries . Advances in Nutrition, 8 ( 3 ), 436 – 448 . PubMed ID: 28507009 doi: 10.3945/an.116.013235 Willeumier , K.C. , Taylor , D.V , & Amen , D.G. ( 2011 ). Elevated BMI is associated with