levels in childcare environments remain low, 13 and sedentary time high. 14 This is concerning, as the large majority of young children (66%) are enrolled in this form of care. 15 Specifically, in comparison to other care environments (eg, home-based childcare and full-day kindergarten), children
Brianne A. Bruijns, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Brian W. Timmons, and Patricia Tucker
Yvonne G. Ellis, Dylan P. Cliff, Steven J. Howard, and Anthony D. Okely
for an acute bout of prolonged sitting by reducing food intake or increasing PA levels ( 28 , 33 ). Yet, this has not been examined in young children. Most preschoolers in Australia (80% of 3 and 4-y-olds) spent at least 1 day a week at childcare ( 29 ). Therefore, interventions in childcare settings
Lubna Abdul Razak, Tara Clinton-McHarg, Jannah Jones, Sze Lin Yoong, Alice Grady, Meghan Finch, Kirsty Seward, Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet, Rimante Ronto, Ben Elton, and Luke Wolfenden
In addition, physical activity is associated with improved psychosocial well-being, 4 motor skill, 5 and neurocognitive development in early childhood. 6 Therefore, early intervention is recommended to support lifelong participation in adequate physical activity. 7 , 8 Center-based childcare
Leigh M. Vanderloo, Patricia Tucker, Ali Ismail, and Melissa M. van Zandvoort
Preschoolers spend a substantial portion of their day in childcare; therefore, these centers are an ideal venue to encourage healthy active behaviors. It is important that provinces’/territories’ childcare legislation encourage physical activity (PA) opportunities. The purpose of this study was to review Canadian provincial/territorial childcare legislation regarding PA participation. Specifically, this review sought to 1) appraise each provincial/territorial childcare regulation for PA requirements, 2) compare such regulations with the NASPE PA guidelines, and 3) appraise these regulations regarding PA infrastructure.
A review of all provincial/territorial childcare legislation was performed. Each document was reviewed separately by 2 researchers, and the PA regulations were coded and summarized. The specific provincial/territorial PA requirements (eg, type/frequency of activity) were compared with the NASPE guidelines.
PA legislation for Canadian childcare facilities varies greatly. Eight of the thirteen provinces/territories provide PA recommendations; however, none provided specific time requirements for daily PA. All provinces/territories did require access to an outdoor play space.
All Canadian provinces/territories lack specific PA guidelines for childcare facilities. The development, implementation, and enforcement of national PA legislation for childcare facilities may aid in tackling the childhood obesity epidemic and assist childcare staff in supporting and encouraging PA participation.
Leigh M. Vanderloo, Olivia J. M. Martyniuk, and Patricia Tucker
Although preschoolers’ physical activity in center-based childcare has received considerable attention, less is known regarding this group’s activity levels within home-based childcare. This review aimed to explore and synthesize the literature on preschoolers’ physical and sedentary activity levels in home-based childcare. Outdoor playtime was also examined to contribute to the understanding of preschoolers’ activity levels within this particular setting.
Nine online databases were searched for peer-reviewed, English-language, primary studies that quantitatively measured physical and sedentary activity levels of preschoolers attending home-based childcare. Studies were excluded if they were nonprimary research, if they lacked a preschool-aged sample, if they did not quantitatively measure physical or sedentary activity, or if they took place in an ineligible environment.
Seven articles were included in this review; 3 had objective measures of activity levels, and 4 relied on nonobjective measures. Accelerometry data suggest that preschoolers’ average sedentary, moderate-to-vigorous, and total physical activity levels in home-based childcare ranged from 39.5 to 49.6, 1.8 to 9.7, and 10.4 to 33.8 min/hr, respectively. Outdoor playtime appears to be inconsistent in home-based childcare.
Physical activity among preschoolers attending home-based childcare appears to be relatively low and widely varied. Sedentary time has received less attention in home-based childcare settings. Future research examining activity levels in this unique environment is warranted.
Camille Gagné and Isabelle Harnois
Data available indicate that numerous childcare workers are not strongly motivated to engage children aged 3–5 in physical activity. Using the theory of planned behavior as the main theoretical framework, this study has 2 objectives: to identify the determinants of the intention of childcare workers to engage preschoolers in physical activity and to identify the variables that could be used to develop an intervention to motivate childcare workers to support preschoolers’ physical activity.
174 childcare workers from 60 childcare centers selected at random in 2 regions of Quebec completed a self-administered questionnaire assessing the constructs of the theory of planned behavior as well as past behavior, descriptive norm and moral norm.
Moral norm, perceived behavioral control and subjective norm explained 85% of the variance in intention to engage the children in physical activity.
To motivate childcare workers, it is necessary that they perceive that directors, children’s parents and coworkers approve of their involvement in children’s physical activity. In addition, their ability to overcome perceived barriers (lack of time, loaded schedule, inclement weather) should be developed. Access to a large outdoor yard might also help motivate childcare workers.
Christina Duff, Johann Issartel, Wesley O’ Brien, and Sarahjane Belton
guidelines recommending that children under six participate in 180 minutes of PA at any intensity, spread across the day during their early years ( Chief Medical Officers, 2011 ; Department of Health and Ageing, Commonwealth of Australia, 2010 ; Tremblay et al., 2012 ). For time spent in childcare, this
Christina Duff, Johann Issartel, Wesley O’ Brien, and Sarahjane Belton
enrolled on the scheme from age 2 years and 8 months, and participate up to age 5.5 years ( Department of Children and Youth Affairs, 2015 ). As more young children now have access to childcare and early education, this represents not only a movement towards equity in education, but an opportunity to
Zhiguang Zhang, Eduarda Sousa-Sá, João R. Pereira, Anthony D. Okely, Xiaoqi Feng, and Rute Santos
]), the data for all children (belonging either to intervention or control groups) were included in this study. Our sample included 335 toddlers aged 19.8 (4.08) months at baseline, of which 292 had at least one observation of valid activPAL data (ie, at least ≥1 h of wear time while at childcare on at
Temitope Erinosho, Derek Hales, Amber Vaughn, Stephanie Mazzucca, and Dianne S. Ward
This study assessed physical activity and screen time policies in child-care centers and their associations with physical activity and screen time practices and preschool children’s (3–5 years old) physical activity.
Data were from 50 child-care centers in North Carolina. Center directors reported on the presence/absence of written policies. Trained research assistants observed physical activity and screen time practices in at least 1 preschool classroom across 3 to 4 days. Children (N = 544) wore accelerometers to provide an objective measure of physical activity.
Physical activity and screen time policies varied across centers. Observational data showed 82.7 min/d of active play opportunities were provided to children. Screen time provided did not exceed 30 min/d/child at 98% of centers. Accelerometer data showed children spent 38 min/d in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and 206 min/d in sedentary activity. Policies about staff supervision of media use were negatively associated with screen time (P < .05). Contrary to expectation, policies about physical activity were associated with less time in physical activity.
Clear strategies are needed for translating physical activity policies to practice. Further research is needed to evaluate the quality of physical activity policies, their impact on practice, and ease of operationalization.