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Jeffrey Liew, Ping Xiang, Audrea Y. Johnson and Oi-Man Kwok

Background:

Schools often include running in their physical education and health curriculum to increase physical activity and reduce childhood overweight. But having students run around may not be enough to sustain physical activity habits if motivational factors are not well understood. This study examined effortful persistence as a predictor of running.

Methods:

Participants were 246 5th graders, and data on their demographic information, body mass index (BMI), effortful persistence, and time to complete a 1-mile run were collected across 4 years.

Results:

Between 5th to 8th grades, effortful persistence predicted time to complete a 1-mile run even when BMI was taken into account at every grade except for 7th grade. Rank-order stability was found in major variables across-time, but no across-time prediction was found for effortful persistence on a 1-mile run.

Conclusions:

Lack of longitudinal predictions bodes well for interventions aimed at increasing physical activity, because children or youth with high BMIs or low effortful persistence are not destined for future underachievement on physically challenging activities. Given the stability of variables, interventions that target fostering self-regulatory efficacy or effortful persistence may be particularly important for getting children on trajectories toward healthy and sustained levels of physical activity.

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Susan B. Sisson, Stephanie T. Broyles, Birgitta L. Baker and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

The purposes were 1) to determine if different leisure-time sedentary behaviors (LTSB), such as TV/video/video game viewing/playing (TV), reading for pleasure (reading), and nonschool computer usage, were associated with childhood overweight status, and 2) to assess the social-ecological correlates of LTSB.

Methods:

The analytic sample was 33,117 (16,952 boys and 16,165 girls) participants from the 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. The cut-point for excessive TV and nonschool computer usage was ≥ 2 hr/day. High quantities of daily reading for pleasure were classified as ≥ 31 min/day. Weighted descriptive characteristics were calculated on the sample (means ± SE or frequency). Logistic regression models were used to determine if the LTSB were associated with overweight status and to examine social-ecological correlates.

Results:

Over 35% of the sample was overweight. Odds of being overweight were higher in the 2 to 3 hr/day (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.76) and ≥ 4 hr/day (OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.91) daily TV groups compared with none. Reading and nonschool computer usage was not associated with being overweight.

Conclusions:

TV was associated with overweight classification; however, nonschool computer usage and reading were not. Several individual, family, and community correlates were associated with high volumes of daily TV viewing.

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Eimear Keane, Xia Li, Janas M. Harrington, Anthony P. Fitzgerald, Ivan J. Perry and Patricia M. Kearney

Purpose:

Globally, public health policies are targeting modifiable lifestyle behaviors. We explore the independent association of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior on the risk of childhood overweight/obesity.

Method:

A cross-sectional survey of children aged 8–11 years (N = 826). Objective body mass index was used to classify children as normal weight or overweight/obese. Children wore wrist-worn Geneactiv accelerometers for 7-days and thresholds were applied to categorize MVPA and sedentary time. Screen time (ST) was parent reported. Poisson regression examined the independent association of (1) MVPA (2), objective sedentary time and (3) ST on the risk of overweight/obesity.

Results:

Overall, 23.7% (95% CI, 20.8–26.6%) of children were overweight/obese. On average, children spent 10.8% of waking time at MVPA and 61.3% sedentary. One-fifth (22.1%, 95% CI, 19.3–25.0%) of children achieved MVPA recommendations (≥ 60 min each day) and 17.5% (95% CI, 14.9–20.1%) met ST recommendations (<2 hr per day). Time spent at MVPA was inversely associated with the risk of overweight/obese independent of total sedentary time. Total time spent sedentary was not associated with overweight/obese independent of MVPA. ST was associated with an increased risk of overweight/obese independent of physical activity.

Conclusion:

Few schoolchildren met physical activity and screen time recommendations suggesting population based measures are needed.

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Teatske Altenburg, Saskia te Velde, Kai-Jan Chiu, George Moschonis, Yannis Manios, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Frøydis N. Vik, Nanna Lien, Johannes Brug and Mai Chinapaw

Background:

The school environment can play an important role in the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity. Photos of the school environment may contribute to more adequate measurement of the school environment, as photos can be rated by different assessors. We aimed to examine the interrater reliability for rating characteristics of primary school environments related to physical activity and eating.

Methods:

Photos taken at 172 primary schools in 7 European countries were rated according to a standardized protocol. Briefly, after categorizing all photos in subsections of physical activity or eating opportunities, 2 researchers independently rated aspects of safety, functionality, aesthetics, type of food/drinks advertised, type/variety of foods provided. Interrater reliability was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Cohen’s kappa.

Results:

Six subsections of the photo-rating instrument showed excellent (ICC or Cohen’s kappa ≥0.81) or good (ICC or Cohen’s kappa 0.61 to 0.80) interrater reliability. Outdoor physical activity facilities (ICC = 0.54) showed moderate, and school canteens (Cohen’s kappa = 0.05) and vending machines showed poor (Cohen’s kappa = 0.16) interrater reliability.

Conclusion:

Interrater reliability of the ENERGY (EuropeaN Energy balance Research to prevent excessive weight Gain among Youth) photo-rating instrument was good-to-excellent for 6 out of 9 characteristics of primary school environment components related to physical activity and eating.

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Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

the Web Annex Evidence Profiles (available online at https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/311663 ). The GDG considered reduced adiposity (body mass index-for-age or other measures of childhood overweight or obesity); increased motor skills; and improvement in the measures of cognitive development

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Lia Grego Muniz de Araújo, Bruna Camilo Turi, Bruna Locci, Camila Angélica Asahi Mesquita, Natália Bonicontro Fonsati and Henrique Luiz Monteiro

adolescents: a meta-analysis . Obes Rev . 2014 ; 15 : 666 – 675 . PubMed doi: 10.1111/obr.12188 24844784 10.1111/obr.12188 12. Dutra GF , Kaufmann CC , Pretto ADB , Albernaz EP . Television viewing habits and their influence on physical activity and childhood overweight . J Pediatr . 2015 ; 91 ( 4

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Dave H.H. Van Kann, Sanne I. de Vries, Jasper Schipperijn, Nanne K. de Vries, Maria W.J. Jansen and Stef P.J. Kremers

. doi:10.1177/1559827609351133 10.1177/1559827609351133 6. Singh AS , Mulder C , Twisk JWR , Van Mechelen W , Chinapaw MJM . Tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature . Obes Rev. 2008 ; 9 ( 5 ): 474 – 488 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X

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Monique Potvin Kent and Clive Velkers

, Mulder C , Twisk JWR , Van Mechelen W , Chinapaw MJM . Tracking of childhood overweight into adulthood: a systematic review of the literature . Obes Rev. 2008 ; 9 ( 5 ): 474 – 488 . PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00475.x 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00475.x 18331423 6. Baker JL , Olsen

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Haixia Guo, Michaela A. Schenkelberg, Jennifer R. O’Neill, Marsha Dowda and Russell R. Pate

The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has increased precipitously in recent years in the United States ( 27 , 28 , 37 ) and around the world ( 7 ), and physical activity (PA) has been identified as one of the key factors for addressing childhood obesity ( 17 , 18 , 32 ). Even for young

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Chelsea L. Kracht, Susan B. Sisson, Emily Hill Guseman, Laura Hubbs-Tait, Sandra H. Arnold, Jennifer Graef and Allen Knehans

. Bethesda, MD : US Dept. of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute ; 2000 , p. 77 . 34. Ochiai H , Shirasawa T , Ohtsu T , et al . Number of siblings, birth order, and childhood overweight: a population