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Elderly Tomboys? Sources of Self-Efficacy for Physical Activity in Late Life

Sandra O’Brien Cousins

Little research has attended to the possibility that competencies and efficacy for physical activity acquired in childhood may last a lifetime. This study examined self-report and recall data on 327 Vancouver women born between 1896 and 1921 with a view to understanding current sources of self-efficacy for adult fitness activity. Current self-efficacy (SE) for late life fitness activity was assessed alongside age, education, perceived well-being, and movement confidence in childhood (MCC) for six challenging physical skills. Perceived well-being was the best predictor of late life SE for fitness exercise, explaining 26% of the variance. However, MCC was also an equally important and independent predictor of late life SE. even when age. education, and perceived well-being were controlled for. This study provides preliminary evidence that personal estimates of ability to exercise in late life are based on self-evaluations of Wellness, current age, and former competencies that have origins in girlhood mastery experiences over six decades earlier.

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The South African 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Birth to 5 Years: An Integration of Physical Activity, Sitting Behavior, Screen Time, and Sleep

Catherine E. Draper, Simone A. Tomaz, Linda Biersteker, Caylee J. Cook, Jacqui Couper, Monique de Milander, Kamesh Flynn, Sonja Giese, Soezin Krog, Estelle V. Lambert, Tamarin Liebenberg, Cyndi Mendoza, Terri Nunes, Anita Pienaar, Alessandra Priorieschi, Dale E. Rae, Nafeesa Rahbeeni, John J. Reilly, Louis Reynolds, Marie-Louise Samuels, Ricardo Siljeur, Jody Urion, Mariza van Wyk, and Anthony D. Okely

childhood development (ECD) in SA, as well as knowledge users (including health practitioners) were identified through the networks of the leadership group. Representatives of the National Departments of Social Development, Health and Basic Education (who are responsible for various aspects of the care of 0

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Development of WHO Guidelines on Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, and Sleep for Children Less Than 5 Years of Age

Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

Framework for early childhood development. 7 Nurturing care encompasses health, nutrition, and safety needs as well as early learning opportunities. The guidelines do not aim to address all aspects of early childhood development, but rather contribute to this broader context through recommendations

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The South African 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Birth to 5 Years: Results From the Stakeholder Consultation

Simone A. Tomaz, Anthony D. Okely, Alastair van Heerden, Khanya Vilakazi, Marie-Louise Samuels, and Catherine E. Draper

for South Africa. The consensus panel for the South African guidelines met in April 2018 and comprised of stakeholders in the field of early childhood development (ECD), health care practitioners, and academic researchers. 4 The guidelines were launched in December 2018. According to the GRADE

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The Effect of Acute Exercise on Neutrophil Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Inflammatory Markers in Healthy Prepubertal and Adult Males

Maple Liu and Brian W. Timmons

The adaptive effects of exercise-induced inflammation and reactive oxygen species production has been well studied in adults, but not in children. Characterizing the exercise responses in children compared with adults will start clarifying the transition from the child phenotype to that of an adult. Ten children aged 8–10 and 12 adults aged 19–21 performed 2 × 30-min bouts of continuous cycling, separated by a 6-min rest period, at a target work rate of 60% of their maximum aerobic capacity. Blood samples were collected pre- and immediately postexercise, and analyzed for neutrophil count, systemic oxidative and inflammatory markers, and intracellular neutrophil-derived reactive oxygen species. Although postexercise absolute neutrophils increased by approximately twofold in men (2.72 ± 0.49 × 109/L to 4.85 ± 2.05 × 109/L; p = .007), boys showed no such change (3.18 ± 0.67 × 109/L to 3.57 ± 0.73 × 109/L; p = .52). Contrary to these findings, boys did show an increase in overall intracellular neutrophil ROS production, whereas men did not. Boys also demonstrated higher overall protein carbonyl levels (0.07 nmol/mg vs 0.04 nmol/mg; boys vs men respectively), whereas men showed higher overall malondialdehyde (0.24 μM vs 0.67 μM; boys vs men respectively). The differences observed in the exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress response may indicate growth-mediated adaptive responses to exercise during childhood development.

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Results from Australia’s 2018 Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth

Natasha Schranz, Vanessa Glennon, John Evans, Sjaan Gomersall, Louise Hardy, Kylie D. Hesketh, David Lubans, Nicola D. Ridgers, Leon Straker, Michalis Stylianou, Grant R. Tomkinson, Stewart Vella, Jenny Ziviani, and Tim Olds

and Ageing ; 2017 . 13. Hardy L , Mihrshahi S , Drayton B , Bauman A . NSW Schools Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey (SPANS) 2015, Full Report . Sydney, NSW : NSW Department of Health ; 2016 . 14. Department of Education and Early Childhood Development . Victorian Child Health

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The Physiotherapy in Preschools Program: Describing a Student-Led Assessment Service for Children With Possible Motor Skill Difficulties

Margarita D. Tsiros, Emily J. Ward, Sophie Lefmann, and Susan Hillier

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals highlight the importance of optimal early childhood development to enable children to reach their full potential ( Black et al., 2017 ), with physical development being a critical component ( World Health Organization, 2007a ). As such, it is widely

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Perceptions of the South African 24-Hour Movement Guidelines for Birth to 5 Years: A Qualitative Study

Catherine E. Draper, Takana M. Silubonde, Gudani Mukoma, and Esther M.F. van Sluijs

dissemination of the South African guidelines was carried out in 2019 with community-based organizations (CBOs) working in early childhood development (ECD), and a program theory for this dissemination has been previously published. 7 The community-based approach to dissemination was shown to be feasible and

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Effects of Regular Exercise During Pregnancy on Early Childhood Neurodevelopment: The Physical Activity for Mothers Enrolled in Longitudinal Analysis Randomized Controlled Trial

Otávio Amaral de Andrade Leão, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Luiza Isnardi Cardoso Ricardo, Werner de Andrade Müller, Luciana Tornquist, Rafaela Costa Martins, Joseph Murray, Mariângela Freitas Silveira, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Pedro Curi Hallal, and Gregore Iven Mielke

Neurodevelopment Assessment (Ox-NDA). This instrument was developed based on the principles of the INTERGROWTH-21st Neurodevelopment Assessment (INTER-NDA) 25 , 26 and measures early childhood development between 10 and 14 months of age, using a combination of play-based tasks, caregiver report, and direct

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Physical Activity and Chronic Stress in Early Life: Findings From the 2015 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort

Otávio Amaral de Andrade Leão, Thaynã Ramos Flores, Gregore Iven Mielke, Inácio Crochemore-Silva, Andréa Dâmaso Bertoldi, Marlos Rodrigues Domingues, Joseph Murray, Rafaela Costa Martins, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues, Isabel O. de Oliveira, and Pedro Curi Hallal

 al . Early childhood development coming of age: science through the life course . Lancet . 2017 ; 389 ( 10064 ): 77 – 90 . doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31389-7 27717614 2. Britto PR , Lye SJ , Proulx K , et al . Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development . Lancet . 2017 ; 389 ( 10064