Purpose: Children’s independent mobility (IM) may facilitate both active transportation (AT) and physical activity (PA), but previous studies examining these associations were conducted in single regions that provided limited geographical variability. Method: We recruited 1699 children (55.0% girls) in 37 schools stratified by level of urbanization and socioeconomic status in 3 regions of Canada: Ottawa, Trois-Rivières, and Vancouver. Participants wore a SC-StepRx pedometer for 7 days and completed a validated questionnaire from which we derived a 6-point IM index, the number of AT trips over a week, and the volume of AT to/from school (in kilometer per week). We investigated relationships among measures of IM, AT, and PA employing linear mixed models or generalized linear mixed models adjusted for site, urbanization, and socioeconomic status. Results: Each unit increase in IM was associated with 9% more AT trips, 19% higher AT volume, and 147 more steps per day, with consistent results across genders. Both measures of AT were associated with marginally higher PA when pooling boys’ and girls’ data. Children in Vancouver engaged in more AT. PA did not vary across site, urbanization, or socioeconomic status. Conclusion: IM was associated with more AT and PA regardless of where children lived, underscoring a need for IM interventions.
Richard Larouche, Joel D. Barnes, Sébastien Blanchette, Guy Faulkner, Negin A. Riazi, François Trudeau and Mark S. Tremblay
Shaunna M. Burke, Jennifer Brunet, Amanda Wurz, Christina Butler and Andrea Utley
dependent on their parents ( Katz et al., 2011 ), which could have facilitated intimacy and deep and meaningful connections. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the ways in which parent–child relationships can be strengthened during cancer while continuing to encourage children’s
Ken Lodewyk and Lauren McNamara
from the “drama” that tends to permeate recess because PE/gym is an instructional aspect of the school day. While maintaining necessary levels of children’s autonomy during recess, schools may need to better design recess according to children’s needs for social connectedness—specifically acceptance
were significantly (p < .05) associated with children’s motivation to be physically active (β = −.44 and .46, respectively) as well as being significantly (p < .05) associated with children’s autonomy (β = −.38 and .58, respectively), competence β = −.22 and.47, respectively) and relatedness (β = −.25