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Physical Activity Among Young Children With Disabilities: A Systematic Review

Leah G. Taylor, Leigh M. Vanderloo, Julia Yates, Rebecca L. Bassett-Gunter, Meagan Stanley, and Patricia Tucker

sufficiently active ( Aubert et al., 2022 ; Hnatiuk et al., 2014 ; Timmons et al., 2012 ; Tucker, 2008 ). What is less clear, are the PA patterns among young children with disabilities ( Aubert et al., 2021 ). Globally, 240 million children (i.e., aged 0–17) have one or more identified disabilities ( United

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Real World Tracking of Modified Ride-On Car Usage in Young Children With Disabilities

Samuel W. Logan, Christina M. Hospodar, Kathleen R. Bogart, Michele A. Catena, Heather A. Feldner, Jenna Fitzgerald, Sarah Schaffer, Bethany Sloane, Benjamin Phelps, Joshua Phelps, and William D. Smart

More than 30 years of research has demonstrated that young children with disabilities who use powered mobility devices for self-directed mobility experience developmental gains such as increased self-initiated social interactions and social skills, increased exploration of the environment, and

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Clinical Validity of the Test of Gross Motor Development-3 in Children With Disabilities from the U.S. National Normative Sample

E. Andrew Pitchford and E. Kipling Webster

and tracking the progress of children with disabilities ( Yun & Case, 2020 ). The third edition of the TGMD-3 was recently published ( Ulrich, 2019 ). Multiple revisions were made to the test, including the addition of the one-handed strike, underhand throw, and skip skills, the removal of the

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Associations Between Perceived Social Support, Perceived Competence, and Physical Activity in Hong Kong Children With Disabilities During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Ming Hui Li, Jane Jie Yu, Stephen Heung Sang Wong, Raymond Kim Wai Sum, and Cindy Hui Ping Sit

with disabilities ( Theis et al., 2021 ; Yuan et al., 2021 ). The lockdown restrictions cause sudden changes in study and working environments, leading to prolonged sitting in children with disabilities ( Yuan et al., 2021 ), increased parental concerns about lack of PA, and increased behavioral

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Inclusion Understood From the Perspectives of Children With Disability

Nancy Spencer-Cavaliere and E. Jane Watkinson

This study explored the perspectives of children with disabilities regarding the concept of inclusion in physical activity. Participants were children (two girls, nine boys, Mage = 10 years, five months, age range: 8–12 years) with disabilities, including cerebral palsy, fine and gross motor delays, developmental coordination disorder, muscular dystrophy, nemaline myopathy, brachial plexus injury, and severe asthma. Children’s perspectives on inclusion in physical activity (e.g., sports, games, and play) were explored through semistructured interviews. Interviews were digitally audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed through content analysis. Three themes emerged from the data: gaining entry to play, feeling like a legitimate participant, and having friends. These themes were associated with feeling included to varying degrees in sports, games, and play. In essence, it was the actions of others that were the prominent features identified by children that contributed to feeling more or less included in physical activity contexts. These results are discussed in relation to inclusion in physical education, recreation, and unstructured free play.

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Experiential Learning Through a Physical Activity Program for Children With Disabilities

K. Andrew R. Richards, Andrew D. Eberline, Sookhenlall Padaruth, and Thomas J. Templin

Service-learning has become a popular pedagogical tool to promote academic and civic learning. One form of service-learning provides physical activity for underrepresented community groups, including children with disabilities. Using experiential learning theory, the purpose of this descriptive case study was to evaluate college students’ experiences in a physical activity-based service learning program for children with disabilities. Through convenience sampling, 97 program participants (82 female, 15 male), most of whom were White (N = 85), were recruited for participation. Data included a pre- and postsurvey of civic learning, participant interviews, reflective journaling, and program observations. Qualitative data were analyzed using constant comparison and inductive analysis, and quantitative data were analyzed using Mixed ANOVAs. Results revealed that the program resulted in enhanced civic and academic learning. Themes included making a difference, academic and career connections, emotional and personal growth, and program reflection. Implications of the study and future directions for research are discussed.

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An Activity-Based Approach to Physical Education for Preschool Children with Disabilities

Martin E. Block and Timothy D. Davis

Traditional motor development programs for preschool children with disabilities usually utilize a behavior-analytic approach in which children are given specific training and instruction on identified IEP objectives. While this approach has its merits in terms of time-on-task and focus on critical IEP objectives, it is not consistent with current developmentally appropriate philosophies in early childhood education. One of the newer techniques suggested by early childhood educators as a “best practice” in educating young children is an activity-based or play-based approach. Children still have individually determined goals and objectives, but these goals and objectives are “embedded” in a variety of child-directed play activities. The teacher acts as a facilitator, encouraging the child to practice individual goals while exploring the environment. The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of activity-based intervention and provide examples of how it can be implemented within a motor development/physical education context for preschool children with disabilities.

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Parents’ Beliefs and Intentions Toward Supporting Physical Activity Participation for Their Children With Disabilities

Mihye Jeong, So-Yeun Kim, and Euikyung Lee

The purpose of this study was to examine validity and reliability evidence of a questionnaire regarding parents’ beliefs and intentions toward supporting physical activity (PA) participation of their children with disabilities (CWD). A total of 220 parents of CWD in South Korea completed a questionnaire that was developed using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Exploratory factor analysis revealed that behavioral, control, and normative beliefs accounted for 31.13%, 20.45%, and 19.63% of the total variance of the intention, respectively. Reliability of entire scale was .85 using Cronbach’s alpha. Reliabilities of the 3 beliefs were .86, .82, and .87, respectively. Standard multiple-regression analysis indicated that behavioral and normative beliefs significantly predicted parents’ intention, p < .01. Intention was a significant predictor of parents’ behavior, p < .01. The results of this study indicated that the TPB can be useful to examine parental support for PA participation of their CWD.

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Sport Participation of Hong Kong Chinese Children with Disabilities in Special Schools

Cindy H.P. Sit, Koenraad J. Lindner, and Claudine Sherrill

The purpose was to examine sport participation (excluding physical education classes) of school-aged Chinese children with disabilities attending special schools in Hong Kong. A sample of 237 children, ages 9 to 19, attending 10 special schools in Hong Kong, responded to a sport participation questionnaire in individual interviews. Data were analyzed by gender, two school levels, and five disability types. Results relating to participation frequency and extent indicated that girls were significantly less active than boys. Children with physical disability, visual impairment, and mental disability were less active than children with hearing impairment and maladjustment. Children with different types of disabilities varied in their participation patterns and choices of physical activities as well as their motives for sport participation, nonparticipation, and withdrawal. We concluded that disability type is more related to children’s participation behaviors in sport and physical activities than to gender and school level.

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Motivational Pathways to Social and Pedagogical Inclusion in Physical Education

Terese Wilhelmsen, Marit Sørensen, and Ørnulf N. Seippel

children with disabilities. Combining tenets from AGT and SDT allow us to explore relations between theoretically distinct aspects of the motivational processes that we posit are essential to understanding inclusion in PE. Despite differences in basic assumptions of what drives human behavior in