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Daniel J. Peart, Michael Graham, Callum Blades and Ian H. Walshe

water (familiarization). Multiple Choice Reaction Time The MCRT was programmed using an automated reaction light system (Witty System, Microgate, Bolzano, Italy), arranged as a 4-light system with the order of lights set to random. Participants had to react to each light by tapping the surface, which

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Twan ten Haaf, Selma van Staveren, Danilo Iannetta, Bart Roelands, Romain Meeusen, Maria F. Piacentini, Carl Foster, Leo Koenderman, Hein A.M. Daanen and Jos J. de Koning

preparation. The duration of each stage was on average 495 (66) minutes, and the rating of perceived exertion was 6.9 (1.2) out of 10. 12 Figure 1 —Study design. Two maximal incremental cycling tests (2 bout exercise protocol 13 ) were performed pre, post, and follow-up. A choice reaction time test was

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Daniel T. Bishop, Costas I. Karageorghis and Noel P. Kinrade

The main objective of the current study was to examine the impact of musically induced emotions on athletes’ subsequent choice reaction time (CRT) performance. A random sample of 54 tennis players listened to researcher-selected music whose tempo and intensity were modified to yield six different music excerpts (three tempi × two intensities) before completing a CRT task. Affective responses, heart rate (HR), and RTs for each condition were contrasted with white noise and silence conditions. As predicted, faster music tempi elicited more pleasant and aroused emotional states; and higher music intensity yielded both higher arousal (p < .001) and faster subsequent CRT performance (p < .001). White noise was judged significantly less pleasant than all experimental conditions (p < .001); and silence was significantly less arousing than all but one experimental condition (p < .001). The implications for athletes’ use of music as part of a preevent routine when preparing for reactive tasks are discussed.

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Andrzej W. Ziemba, Jan Chmura, Hanna Kaciuba-Uscilko, Krystyna Nazar, Piotr Wisnik and Wojciech Gawronski

This study was designed to determine the effect of ginseng treatment on multiple choice reaction time (RT) during exercise. Fifteen soccer players (age 19.07 ± 0.62 yrs) were placed in a double-blind manner into one of two groups: ginseng (n = 7), receiving 350 mg of ginseng daily for 6 weeks, or placebo (n = 8), receiving a placebo daily for 6 weeks. Before and after the treatment all the subjects performed an incremental bicycle ergometer exercise with intensity increasing 50 W every 3 min until volitional exhaustion. RT was measured before exercise, and then in the last 2 min of each exercise load. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and lactate threshold (LAT) were also determined from the exercise test. Ginseng treatment was found to shorten RT at rest and during exercise, shifting the exercise load associated with the shortest RT toward higher exercise loads. Neither ginseng nor placebo influenced VO2 max and LAT. In conclusion, ginseng extract does improve psychomotor performance during exercise without affecting exercise capacity.

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Deborah A. Jehu, Yves Lajoie and Nicole Paquet

plateau in performance after session 8 ( Stobach, Frensch, Hermann, & Schubert, 2012a ) and session 21 ( Stobach, Frensch, Hermann, & Schubert, 2012b ). In our recent research, we investigated the stability of simple reaction time (SRT) and choice reaction time (CRT) tasks while standing on a force

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Jacinta M. Saldaris, Grant J. Landers and Brendan S. Lay

while standing at rest on a laptop (Apple Macbook Pro 13”, Cupertino, CA). Three computerized cognitive tasks (∼2 min each; Inquisit 4 Lab, Millisecond Software, Seattle, WA) were completed in a randomized order between participants. Choice Reaction Time An 8-choice reaction time (CRT) task was used to

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda

indicates Epworth Sleepiness Scale; GMT, Greenwich Mean Time; MCRT, multiple-choice reaction time; N20, 20-minute nap; N90, 90-minute nap; NSN, normal sleep night (baseline); POMS, Profile of Mood State; PSD, partial sleep deprivation; RAST, running-based anaerobic sprint test; SRT, simple reaction time

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Kathye E. Light and Waneen W. Spirduso

Unlike stimulus–response compatibility, which has been explored for aging effects, the motor behavior issue of response–response (R–R) compatibility has not been addressed in the gerontological literature. R–R compatibility refers to the ease with which two responses can be prepared together either simultaneously or as choice alternatives. In the present study, young, middle-aged, and elderly adult female subjects were tested in a two-choice reaction-time (RT) paradigm involving four types of finger movements paired in every possible choice combination, creating different levels of R–R compatibility. Significant age differences increased as R–R compatibility decreased. The practical significance of this study is to establish R–R compatibility as an important factor influencing task difficulty to which older adults are particularly sensitive and to encourage recognition of this factor when prescribing progressive motor-skill training in elderly clients.

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Priscilla Gilliam MacRae, Celee Morris, Cheok Y. Lee, Karen Crum, Dale Giessman, James S. Greene and Jo Ann Ugolini

Comparisons between young and older women runners and sedentary controls were examined on simple and choice reaction time tasks involving elbow flexion and extension. Reaction time was fractionated into premotor and contractile components using electromyography. Young runners were significantly faster and the older controls were significantly slower than all other groups on all reaction time tasks. The older runners were not significantly different from the young controls in any of the reaction time tasks, thus indicating that a history of running may eliminate or retard the slowing of reaction time that normally accompanies aging. All four groups had similar contractile times, indicating that the differences in reaction time were attributed to central processing in the premotor component of reaction time.

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Jeffrey E. Brandon, Robert L. Eason and Theresa L. Smith

The purposes of this study were to determine if learning-disabled males referred with hyperactive behaviors could be taught to relax, and to measure the effects of relaxation training on an attention demanding motor task. Subjects were given behavior relaxation training and a modified visual choice reaction time task. There was a dramatic decrease in the number of unrelaxed behaviors (BRS scores) for all subjects across training. A training effect for the response time task for all subjects was noted following the baseline stabilization phase. This study supports the use of behavior relaxation training as a technique for teaching learning-disabled males to relax. Also, it suggests that being in a relaxed state may facilitate performance on an attention demanding motor task.