effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health. Traditional serum biomarkers, such as total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, and triglyceride levels, have been used to study the effects of exercise interventions
Susan Sullivan Glenney, Derrick Paul Brockemer, Andy C. Ng, Michael A. Smolewski, Vladimir M. Smolgovskiy, and Adam S. Lepley
Rochelle R. Costa, Adriana C.K. Buttelli, Leandro Coconcelli, Laura F. Pereira, Alexandra F. Vieira, Alex de O. Fagundes, Juliano B. Farinha, Thais Reichert, Ricardo Stein, and Luiz F.M. Kruel
Dyslipidemias are heterogeneous disorders of lipid metabolism arising from multiple etiologies that result in alterations in blood lipoproteins (low-density lipoprotein—LDL and high-density lipoprotein—HDL) and lipid (total cholesterol—TC and triglycerides—TG) concentrations. 1 In elderly women
James D. LeCheminant, Larry A. Tucker, Bruce W. Bailey, and Travis Peterson
To determine objectively measured intensity of physical activity (iPA) and its relationship to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and the LDL/HDL ratio in women.
Two hundred seventy-two women (40.1 y) wore CSA-MTI model 7164 accelerometers to index intensity and volume of physical activity for 7 d. Blood lipids were measured at a certified laboratory.
HDL-C was 52.1 ± 10.1, 52.2 ± 9.7, and 56.1 ± 11.1 mg/dL for the low, medium, and high intensity groups (P = 0.040), LDL-C differences were not significant (P = 0.23). LDL/HDL differences were observed (P = 0.030) with specific differences between the low and high iPA groups (P = 0.006). For HDL-C and LDL/HDL, significant relationships remained with control of dietary fat and age but not body fat percentage or volume of activity.
High iPA had higher HDL-C levels and lower LDL/HDL ratios than low and medium iPA. The iPA was predictive of HDL-C partly due to its strong association with volume of activity and body fat percentage.
Anatoli Petridou, Despina Lazaridou, and Vassilis Mougios
Although chronic exercise is generally believed to improve the lipidemic profile, it is not clear whether this is due to exercise training or to other determinants such as the usually low body fat of athletes. The aim of the present study was to compare the lipidemic profile of young lean athletes and non-athletes matched for percentage body fat. Fourteen endurance athletes and fourteen sedentary men participated in the study. Participants provided two blood samples at the beginning and end of a 7-d period, during which they recorded physical activity and food intake. Athletes had significantly higher energy expenditure and energy intake but not significantly different macronutrient composition of their diet from non-athletes. No significant differences were found in serum triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations between groups. These data suggest that athletes and non-athletes with similar body fat do not differ in their lipidemic profiles.
Sonia Vega-López, Giselle A.P. Pignotti, Colleen Keller, Michael Todd, Barbara Ainsworth, Allison Nagle Williams, Kathie Records, Dean Coonrod, and Paska Permana
The effects of moderate intensity walking on lipoprotein remodeling in postpartum Hispanic women are unknown.
Sedentary postpartum Hispanic women (28.2 ± 5.6 y; BMI = 29.3 ± 3.3 kg/m2) participating in a social support physical activity (PA) intervention, were randomly assigned to a 12-month walking program (walkers; n = 22; target 150 min/wk, moderate intensity) or a control group (nonwalkers; n = 22). Fasting lipids and cholesterol distribution within low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were measured at baseline (BL), 6 months, and 12 months.
Walkers had an 11% increase and nonwalkers a 7% decrease in HDL cholesterol from 6 to 12 months (P = .0367) without an effect on LDL cholesterol. Whereas nonwalkers had virtually no change in mean LDL particle size, walkers had a borderline reduction in LDL size from BL (268.7 ± 4.1 Å) to 6 months (266.9 ± 4.9 Å), followed by a significant increase in size by 12 months (269.7 ± 4.1 Å; P = .011). The proportion of cholesterol in large LDL particles decreased by 15% from BL to 6 months, but subsequently increased 25% by 12 months among walkers; changes among nonwalkers were smaller and in opposite direction (4% and –3%, respectively; P = .0004).
Participation in the social-support PA intervention resulted in slightly increased HDL cholesterol concentrations and a modest and beneficial shift toward larger, less atherogenic LDL particles.
Michael L. Mestek, John C. Garner, Eric P. Plaisance, James Kyle Taylor, Sofiya Alhassan, and Peter W. Grandjean
The purpose of this study was to compare blood lipid responses to continuous versus accumulated exercise. Nine participants completed the following conditions on separate occasions by treadmill walking/jogging at 70% of VO2max : 1) one 500-kcal session and 2) three 167 kcal sessions. Total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) concentrations were measured from serum samples obtained 24 h prior to and 24 and 48 h after exercise. All blood lipid responses were analyzed in 2 (condition) × 3 (time) repeated measures ANOVAs. HDL-C increased by 7 mg/dL over baseline at 48 h post-exercise with three accumulated sessions versus 2 mg/dL with continuous exercise (P < 0.05). Triglyceride concentrations were unchanged in both conditions. These findings suggest that three smaller bouts accumulated on the same day may have a modestly greater effect for achieving transient increases in HDL-C compared to a continuous bout of similar caloric expenditure.
Rochelle D. Kirwan, Lindsay K. Kordick, Shane McFarland, Denver Lancaster, Kristine Clark, and Mary P. Miles
The purpose of this study was to determine the dietary, anthropometric, blood-lipid, and performance patterns of university-level American football players attempting to increase body mass during 8 wk of training.
Three-day diet records, body composition (DEXA scan), blood lipids, and performance measures were collected in redshirt football players (N = 15, age 18.5 ± 0.6 yr) early season and after 8 wk of in-season training.
There was an increase (p < .05) from early-season to postseason testing for reported energy (+45%), carbohydrate (+82%), and protein (+29%) intakes and no change in the intake of fat. Fat intake was 41% of energy at the early-season test and 32% of energy at the postseason test. Increases (p < .05 for all) in performance measures, lean mass (70.5 ± 7.7–71.8 ± 7.7 kg), fat mass (15.9 ± 6.2–17.3 ± 6.8 kg), plasma total cholesterol (193.5 ± 32.4–222.6 ± 40.0 mg/dl), and low-density lipoproteins (LDL; 92.7 ± 32.7–124.5 ± 34.7 mg/dl) were measured. No changes were measured in triglycerides, very-low-density lipoproteins, or high-density lipoproteins.
Increases in strength, power, speed, total body mass, muscle mass, and fat mass were measured. Cholesterol and LDL levels increased during the study to levels associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease. It is possible that this is a temporary phenomenon, but it is cause for concern and an indication that dietary education to promote weight gain in a manner less likely to adversely affect the lipid profile is warranted.
Daniela A. Rubin, Robert G. McMurray, Joanne S. Harrell, Barbara W. Carlson, and Shrikant Bangdiwala
The purpose of this project was to determine the accuracy in lipids measurement and risk factor classification using Reflotron, Cholestech, and Ektachem DT-60 dry-chemistry analyzers. Plasma and capillary venous blood from fasting subjects (n = 47) were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) using these analyzers and a CDC certified laboratory. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing the results of each portable analyzer against the CDC reference method. One-way ANOVAs were performed for TC, HDL-C, and TG between all portable analyzers and the reference method. Chi-square was used for risk classification (2001 NIH Guidelines). Compared to the reference method, the Ektachem and Reflotron provided significantly lower values for TC (p < .05). In addition, the Cholestech and Ektachem values for HDL-C were higher than the CDC (p < .05). The Reflotron and Cholestech provided higher values of TG than the CDC (p < .05). Chi-squares analyses for risk classification were not significant (p > .45) between analyzers. According to these results, the Ektachem and Cholestech analyzers met the current NCEP III guidelines for accuracy in measurement of TC, while only Ektachem met guidelines for TG. All 3 analyzers provided a good overall risk classification; however, values of HDL-C should be only used for screening purposes.
Amy L. Morgan, David A. Tobar, and Lauren Snyder
To determine whether individuals participating in a program designed to accumulate 10,000 steps/ day demonstrate health, fitness and psychological benefits.
Sedentary individuals (22 F, 7 M; age 59.8 ± 5.78 yr) were randomly assigned into a walking (W, n = 14) or control (C, n = 15) group. Following baseline assessment, the W group was given a daily plan to reach 10,000 steps/day within 3 weeks and asked to maintain this level for 12 weeks; the C group was asked to maintain their current activity. Participants were evaluated for cardiovascular endurance, resting and postexercise HR, functional ability, cholesterol, psychological well-being, and exercise self-efficacy before and following the 15-week program.
Significant changes over time were noted between groups (G×T; P < .05) with the W group demonstrating improvements in postexercise HR (−6.51%), total cholesterol (TC: −7.74%), and personal growth (2.53%). While not statistically significant, the W group also demonstrated improvements in 6 min walk distance (2.32%), total/HDL ratio (−10.09%), 8 foot up-and-go time (−3.35%), chair stands (6.17%), flexibility (128%), and environmental mastery (4.54%).
A 15-week program aimed at accumulating 10,000 steps/day improves cardiovascular performance and personal growth and also positively influences many variables that are indicators of health, fitness and psychological well-being.
Ming-Lang Tseng, Chien-Chang Ho, Shih-Chang Chen, Yi-Chia Huang, Cheng-Hsiu Lai, and Yung-Po Liaw
Evidence suggests that physical activity has a beneficial effect of elevated high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on reducing coronary artery risk. However, previous studies show contrasting results for this association between different types of exercise training (i.e., aerobic, resistance, or combined aerobic and resistance training). The aim of this study was to determine which type of exercise training is more effective in increasing HDL-C levels. Forty obese men, age 18–29 yr, were randomized into 4 groups: an aerobic-training group (n = 10), a resistance-training group (n = 10), a combined-exercise-training group (n = 10), and a control group (n = 10). After a 12-wk exercise program, anthropometrics, blood biochemical variables, and physical-fitness components were compared with the data obtained at the baseline. Multiple-regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between different types of exercise training and changes in HDL-C while adjusting for potential confounders. The results showed that with the control group as the comparator, the effects of combined-exercise training (β = 4.17, p < .0001), aerobic training (β = 3.65, p < .0001), and resistance training (β = 2.10, p = .0001) were positively associated with increase in HDL-C after adjusting for potential confounders. Our findings suggested that a short-term exercise program can play an important role in increasing HDL-C levels; either aerobic or resistance training alone significantly increases the HDL-C levels, but the improvements are greatest with combined aerobic and resistance training.